Intrapulmonary bronchi: the primary bronchi give rise to three main branches in the right lung and two branches in the left lung, each of which supply a pulmonary lobe. These lobar bronchi divide repeatedly to give rise to bronchioles.

Mucosa consists of the typical respiratory epithelium.

Submucosa consists of elastic tissue with fewer mixed glands than seen in the trachea.

Anastomosing cartilage plates replace the C—shaped rings found in the trachea and extra pulmonary portions of the pri mary bronchi.

Bronchioles do not possess cartilage, glands, or lymphatic nodules; however, they contain the highest proportion of smooth r muscle in the bronchial tree. Bronchioles branch up to 12 times to supply lobules in the lung.

Bronchioles are lined by ciliated, simple, columnar epithelium with nonciliated bronchiolar cells. The musculature of the bronchi and bronchioles con tracts following stimulation by parasympathetic fibers (vagus nerve) and relaxes in response to sympathetic fibers. Terminal bronchioles consist of low—ciliated epithelium with bronchiolar cells.

The costal surface is a large convex area related to the inner surface of the ribs.

The mediastinal surface is a concave medial surface, contains the root, or hilus, of the lung.

The diaphragmatic surface (base) is related to the convex sur face of the diaphragm. The apex (cupola) protrudes into the root of the neck.

The hilus is the point of attachment for the root of the lung. It contains the bronchi, pulmonary and bronchial vessels, lym phatics, and nerves. Lobes and fissures.

The right lung has three lobes: superior, middle and inferior.

The left lung has upper and lower lobes.

Bronchopulmonary segments of the lung are supplied by the segmental (tertiary) bronchus, artery, and vein. There are 10 on the right and 8 on the left.

Arterial supply: Right and left pulmonary arteries arise from the pulmonary trunk. The pulmonary arteries deliver deoxygenated blood to the lungs from the right side of the heart.

Bronchial arteries supply the bronchi and nonrespirato—ry por tions of the lung. They are usually branches of the thoracic aorta.

Venous drainage. There are four pulmonary veins: superior right and left and inferior right and left. Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart.

The bronchial veins drain to the azygos system.

Bronchomediastinal lymph trunks drain to the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct.

Innervation of Lungs: Anterior and posterior pulmonary plexuses are formed by vagal (parasympathetic) and sympathetic fibers. Parasympathetic stimulation hasa broncho—constrictive effect. Sympathetic stimulation has a broncho—dilator effect.

New words

lungs – легкие

intrapulmonary bronchi – внутрилегочные бронхи

the primary bronchi – первичные бронхи

lobar bronchi – долевые бронхи

submucosa – подслизистая оболочка