Muscles of respiration: inspiration is always an active process. The following muscles are involved: The diaphragm is the most important muscle of inspiration. It is convex at rest, and flattens during contraction, thus elongating the thoracic cavity. Contraction of the external in—tercostals lifts the rib cage upward and outward, expanding the thoracic cavity. These muscles are more important for deep inhalations. Accessory muscles of inspiration, including the scalene (elevate the first two ribs) and sternocleidomastoid (elevate the sternum) muscles, are not active during quiet breath ing, but become more important in exercise. Expiration is normally a passive process. The lung and chest wall are elastic and naturally return to their resting positions after being actively expanded during inspiration. Expiratory muscles are used during exercise, forced expiration and cer tain disease states. Abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, internal and exter nal obliques, and transversus abdominis) increase intra—abdominal pressure, which pushes the diaphragm up, forc ing air out of the lungs. The internal intercostal muscles pull the ribs downward and inward, decreasing the thoracic volume. Elastic properties of the lungs: the lungs collapse if force is not applied to expand them. Elastin in the alveolar walls aids the passive deflation of the lungs. Collagen within the pulmonary interstit—ium resists further expansion at high lung volumes. Compliance is defined as the change in volume per unit change in pressure (AV/AP). In vivo, compliance is measured by esophageal balloon pres sure vs. lung volume at many points during inspiration and expiration. Each measurement is made after the pressure and volume have equilibrated and so this is called static compli ance. The compliance is the slope of the pressure—volume curve. Several observations can be made from the pressure—volumecurve.

Note that the pressure—volume relationship is different with deflation than with inflation of air (hysteresis). The compliance of the lungs is greater (the lungs are more distensible) in the middle volume and pressure ranges.

The equation for oxygen is:

QO 2 = CO χ 1,34 (ml/g) χ [Hg] χ SaO 2 + + 0,003 (ml/ml per mm Hg) χ РаО 2,

where QO 2 is oxygen delivery (ml/min), CO is cardiac output (L/min). Hg is hemoglobin concentration (g/L), SaO 2 is the fraction of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen, and PaO 2 is the partial pressure of the oxygen dissolved in plasma and is trivial compare to the amount of oxygen carried by hemoglobin. Examination of this equation reveals that increasing hemoglobin concentration and increasing cardiac output can enhance oxygen delivery. Saturation is normally greater than 92 % and usually is easily maintained through supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation. Cardiac output is supported be insuring adequate fluid resuscitation (cardiac preload) and manipulating contractility and after load pharmacologically (usually cat—echolamines).

New words

Equation – уравнение

Delivery – доставка

Cardiac output – сердечный выброс

Fraction – фракция

Contractility – сократимость