The trachea, a hollow cylinder supported by 16–20 cartilaginous rings, is continuous with the larynx above and the branching primary bronchi below.

Mucosa of the trachea consists of the typical respiratory epitheli um, an unusually thick basement membrane, and an underlying lamina propria that is rich in elastin. The lamina propria contains loose elastic tissue with blood vessels, lymphatics, and defensive cells. The outer edge of the lamina propria is defined by a dense network of elastic fibers.

Submucosa consists of dense elastic connective tissue with seroriltfcous glands whose ducts open onto the surface of the epithe lium.

Cartilage rings are C—shaped hyaline cartilage pieces whose free extremities point dorsally (posteriorly). They are covered by a perichondrium of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds each of the cartilages. Smooth muscle bundles (trachealis muscle) and ligaments span the dorsal part of each cartilage.

Adventita a consists of peripheral dense connective tissue that binds the trachea to surrounding tissues.

Primary bronchi

The trachea branches at its distal end into the two primary bronchi. Short extrapulmonary segments of the primary bronchi exist before they enter the lungs at the hilus and then branch further. The histologic structure of the walls of the extrapulmonary segment of the primary bronchi is similar to that of the tracheal wall.

New words

hollow – пустота

cylinder – цилиндр

supported – поддержанный


rings – хрящевые кольца

larynx – гортань

above – выше

branching – переход

primary bronchi – первичные бронхи

below – ниже

mucosa – слизистая оболочка

typical – типичный

respiratory epitheli um – дыхательный эпителий

an unusually – нетипитчно

thick – толстый

basement – основание

underlying – основной

lamina – тонкая пластинка

rich – богатый

elastin – эластин

loose – свободный

vessel – сосуд

lymphatics – лимфатический

defensive cells – защитные клетки

outer – внешний

edge – край