The urinary system is formed mainly from mesodermal and endodermal derivatives. Three separate systems form sequentially. The pronephros is vestigial; the mesonephros may function transiently, but then mainly disappears; the metanephros develops into the definitive kidney. The permanent excre tory ducts are derived from the metanephric ducts, the uro—genital sinus, and surface ectoderm.

Pronephros: Segmented nephrotomes appear in the cervical intermediate mesoderm of the embryo in the fourth week. These structures grow laterally and canalize to form nephric tubules. Successive tubules grow caudally and unite to form the pronephric duct, which empties into the cloaca. The first tubules formed regress before the last ones are formed.

Mesonephros: In the fifth week, the mesonephros appears as «S—shaped» tubules in the intermediate meso—derm of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the embryo.

The medial end of each tubule enlarges to form a Bowman's capsule into which a tuft of capillaries, or glo—merulus, invaginates.

The lateral end of each tubule opens into the meson—ephrb (Wolffian) duct.

Mesonephric tubules function temporarily and degenerate by the beginning of the third month. The meson—ephric duct pesists in the male as the ductus epididymidis, ductus deferens, and the ejaculatory duct.

Metanephros: During the fifth week, the metanephros, or permanent kidney, develops from two sources: the ureteric bud, a diverticulum of the mesonephric duct, and the metan—ephric mas, from intermediate mesoderrn of the lumbar and sacral regions. The ureteric bud penetrates the metanephric mass, which cordenses around the diverticulum to form the metanephrogen cap. The bud dilates to form the renal pelvis. One—to—three million collecting tubules develop from the minor calyces, thus forming the renal pyramids. Penetration of collecting tubules into the metanephric mass induces cells of the tissue cap to form nephrons, or excretory units. The proximal nephron forms Bowman's capsule, wherea the distal nephron connects to a collecting tubule.

Lengtheningy of the excretory tubule gives rise to the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule.

The kidneys develop in the pelvis but appear to «as—cend» into the abdomen as a result of fetal growth of the lumbar and sacral regions.

The upper and largest part of the urogenital sinus becomes the urinary bladder, which is initially continuous with the allantois. Later the lumen of the allantois becomes obliterated. The mucosa of the trigone of the bladder is formed by the incorporation of the caudal mesonephric ducts into the dorsal bladder wall. This mesodermal tissue is eventually replaced by endodermal epithelium so that the entire lining of the blad der is of endodermal origin. The smooth muscle of the bladder is derived from splanchnic mesoderm.

Mile urethra is anatomically divided into three portions: prostatic membranous, and spongy (penile).

The prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, and proximal penile urethra develop from the narrow portion of the uro genital sinus below the urinary bladder. The distal spongy urethra is derived from the ectodermal cells of the glans penis.

Fimale urethra: The upper two—thirds develops from the esonephric ducts, and the lower portion is derived from the ogenital sinus.

New words

urinary system – мочевая система

kidneys – почки

bladder – мочевой пузырь

excretory ducts – выделительные трубочки

pronephros – первичная почка

urogenital – мочеполовой