Matter is anything that occupies space, possesses mass and can be perceived by our sense organs. It exists in nature in three, usually inter convertible physical states: solids, liquids and gases. For instance, ice, water and steam are respectively the solid, liquid and gaseous states of water. Things in the physical world are made up of a relatively small number of basic materials combined in various ways. The physical material of which everything that we can see or touch is made is matter. Matter exists in three different states: solid, liquid and gaseous. Human senses with the help of tools allow us to determine the properties of matter. Matter can undergo a variety of changes – physical and chemical, natural and controlled.

Chemistry and physics deal with the study of matter, its properties, changes and transformation with energy. There are two kinds of properties: physical – colour, taste, odour, density, hardness, solubility and ability to conduct electricity and heat; in solids the shape of their crystals is significant, freezing and boiling points of liquids.

Chemical properties are the changes in composition undergone by a substance when it is subjected to various conditions. The various changes may be physical and chemical. The physical properties are temporary. In a chemical change the composition of the substance is changed and new products are formed. Chemical properties are permanent.

It is useful to classify materials as solid, liquid or gas (though water, for example, exists as solid (ice), as liquid (water) and as gas (water vapour). The changes of state described by the terms solidify (freeze), liquify (melt), va—pourise (evaporate) and condense are examples of physical changes. After physical change there is still the same material. Water is water whether it is solid, liquid or gas. Also, there is still the same mass of material. It is usually easy to reverse a physical change.

New words

matter – материя

mass – масса

sense – чувство

organ – орган

steam – пар

to undergo – подвергать

variety – разнообрзие

change – перемена

physical – физический

chemical – химический

natural – природный

transformation – трансформация

colour – цвет

taste – вкус

odour – запах

density – плотность

hardness – твердость

solubility – растворимость

ability – возможность

to conduct – проводить

permanent – постоянный