The components of the skeletal system are derived from mesenchymal elements that arise from mesoderm and neural crest. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into fibroblasts, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts, which produce connective tissue, cartilage, and bone tissue, respectively. Bone organs either develop directly in mesenchymal connective tissue (intramembranous ossification) or from preformed cartilage models (endochondral ossification). The splanch nic meso—derm gives rise to cardiac and smooth muscle.

The skeletal system develops from paraxial mesoderm. By the end of the fourth week, the sclerotome cells form embryonic connective tissue, known as mesenchyme. Mesenchyme cells migrate and differentiate to form fibro—blasts, chondroblasts, or osteoblasts.

Bone organs are formed by two methods.

Flat bones are formed by a process known as intra—membinous ossification, in which bones develop directly within mesenchyme.

Long bones are formed by a process known as en—dochondral ossification, in which mesenchymal cells give rise hyaline cartilage models that subsequently become ossified.

Skull formation.

Neurocranium is divided into two portions: The membranous neurocranium consists of flat bones that surround the brain as a vault. The bones appose one another at sutures and fontanelles, which allow overlap of bones during birth and remain membranous until adulthood.

The cartilaginous neurocranium (chondro—cranium) of the base of the skull is formed by fusion and ossification of number of separate cartilages along the median plate.

Viscerocranium arises primarily from the first two pharynge arches.

Appendicular system: The pectoral and pelvic girdles and the limbs comprise the appendicular system.

Except for the clavicle, most bones of the system are end chondral. The limbs begin as mesenchymal buds with an apical ectodermal ridge covering, which exerts an inductive influence over the mesenchyme.

Bone formation occurs by ossification of hyaline cartilage models.

The cartilage that remains between the diaphysis and the epiphyses of a long bone is known as the epiphysial plate. It is the site of growth of long bones until they attain their final size and the epiphysial plate disappears.

Vertebral column.

During the fourth week, sclerotome cells migrate medially to surround the spinal cord and notochord. After proliferation of the caudal portion of the sclerotomes, the vertebrae are formed, each consisting of the caudal part of one sclerotome and cephalic part of the next.

While the notochord persists in the areas of the vertebral bod ies, it degenerates between them, forming the nucleus pulposus. The latter, together with surrounding circular fibers of the annulus fibrosis, forms the intervertebral disc.

New words

skeletal – скелетный

mesoderm – мезодерма

cartilage – хрящ

fibroblasts – фибробласты

chondroblasts – хондробласты

osteoblasts – остеобласты

paraxial – параксиальный

flat – плоский

bone – кость