Английский язык. Экспресс-репетитор для подготовки к ЕГЭ. «Письмо»

Музланова Елена

Сборник содержит 4 главы, которые охватывают основные типы заданий по письму, предусмотренных форматом ЕГЭ. Главное внимание уделено двум заданиям: неофициальному письму и сочинению с элементами рассуждения. В книге представлено 30 писем личного характера и 50 сочинений, содержащих исчерпывающую информацию, необходимую для успешной сдачи экзамена. В каждом разделе также даны рекомендации по выполнению заданий, а также приведены схемы их оценивания. Пособие предназначено главным образом для учащихся 10–11 классов школ, гимназий и лицеев, однако может быть использовано и на более раннем этапе обучения. Сборник будет полезен и учителям, которые найдут в нем необходимый материал для своей работы на уроках.

 

Е.С. Музланова

Английский язык. Экспресс-репетитор для подготовки к ЕГЭ. «Письмо»

 

Предисловие

Цель настоящего пособия – помочь учащимся 10–11 классов и абитуриентам в кратчайшие сроки подготовиться к итоговой аттестации по английскому языку в форме единого государственного экзамена. Одним из главных аспектов проверки на экзамене является практическое владение письменной речью в рамках изученных тем, а также коммуникативная компетенция учащихся.

Раздел единого экзамена «Письмо» представляет собой небольшую письменную работу и включает два задания: письмо личного характера и письменное высказывание с элементами рассуждения. Рекомендуемое время на выполнение раздела – 60 минут. Черновые пометки делаются прямо на листе с заданиями и не оцениваются. Полный окончательный вариант ответа заносится в бланк ответов и оценивается экзаменаторами.

При ответе на первое задание учащийся должен дать развернутое сообщение в связи с предложенным заданием, запросить необходимую информацию, использовать неофициальный стиль, а также соблюсти формат неофициального письма. При ответе на второе задание учащийся должен высказать свое мнение, приводя аргументы, доказательства, примеры, логически построить свое высказывание, употребляя соответствующие средства логической связи, сделать вывод, а также продемонстрировать владение грамматическими структурами и хорошим словарным запасом в соответствии с поставленной задачей.

Пособие содержит 4 главы, которые охватывают основные виды заданий по письму, однако основное внимание уделено заданиям на составление письма личного характера и высказывания с элементами рассуждения. В книге представлено 30 писем личного характера и 50 сочинений, содержащих исчерпывающую информацию, необходимую для успешной сдачи экзамена. Информативная насыщенность сочинений позволяет также использовать их для развития навыка устной речи.

Для успешной подготовки к экзамену в каждом разделе сборника даны рекомендации по выполнению заданий, а также приведены схемы их оценивания. Это поможет учащимся осознанно подойти к выполнению поставленных задач.

Пособие предназначено главным образом для подготовки учащихся 10–11 классов школ, гимназий и лицеев к выпускному экзамену по английскому языку. Оно может быть использовано и на более раннем этапе для самостоятельной подготовки к контрольным работам по письму, а также для углубленного изучения английского языка. Сборник может быть полезен и учителям, которые найдут в нем необходимый материал для своей работы на уроках.

Надеюсь, что пособие поможет быстро и качественно подготовиться к итоговой аттестации по английскому языку и успешно сдать единый государственный экзамен.

 

Глава 1. Письмо личного характера

 

1.1. Рекомендации по составлению письма личного характера

При написании личного письма необходимо придерживаться следующих правил.

> Не забудьте указать свой адрес в правом верхнем углу в следующем порядке:

•  номер дома, название улицы

 город

 страна

Допускается указывать адрес в кратком виде, например:

Moscow

Russia

>  Под адресом, пропустив строку, необходимо написать дату письма:

June 7th, 2008

7 June 2008

или менее официально:

07/06/08

> Письмо начинается с неофициального обращения. Представьте, что вы пишете настоящему другу, а знакомых людей обычно называют по имени. Если в задании оно не указано, вам следует его придумать:

Dear Tim,

Dear Rebecca,

После обращения обязательно ставится запятая!

> Разделите текст своего письма на несколько логических абзацев, каждый из которых начните с красной строки.

1. В первом абзаце вам следует поблагодарить своего друга за его письмо: Thanks (a lot) for your (last) letter. Your last letter was a real surprise. I was glad to get your letter. It was great to hear from you! / It was great to hear that … / I was happy to hear … Вы можете также извиниться за то, что не писали раньше:Sorry I haven’t written for so long but … / Sorry I haven’t been in touch for so long. I\'m sorry I haven\'t answered earlier but I was really busy with my school. и/или упомянуть какой-либо факт из полученного письма:I’m glad you passed your History test! Sounds like you had a great time in London! Great news about your …!

2.  Основная часть письма (2–3 абзаца). В ней вы должны раскрыть все аспекты, указанные в задании. Не забудьте задать необходимые вопросы. Предполагается, что письмо должно быть написано в неформальном стиле, поэтому вы можете использовать неформальные слова-связки, такие как well, by the way, anyway, so, разговорные выражения типа Guess what? Или Wish me luck! а также восклицательные знаки.

3. В последнем параграфе следует объяснить, почему вы заканчиваете письмо: Well, I’d better go now as I have to do my homework. Anyway, I have to go now because my Mum asked me to helpher with the washing up. I’ve got to go now! It’s time for my favourite TV show. и упомянуть о дальнейших контактах:Write (back) soon! Take care and keep in touch! Drop me a letter when you can. Hope to hear from you soon. I can’t wait to hear from you! > В конце письма на отдельной строке указывается завершающая фраза-клише, которая зависит от близости автора и адресата. После нее всегда ставится запятая! Ниже приводятся пять возможных ее вариантов от наименее формального (1) к более формальному (7): 1) Love, 2) Lots of love, 3) All my love, 4) All the best, 5) Best wishes, 6) With best wishes, 7) Yours, > На следующей строке под завершающей фразой указывается имя автора (без фамилии!). Например: Andrew или Kate Таким образом, письмо к другу имеет следующий вид:#Autogen_eBook_id0 Образец письма личного характера

Task 1. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Steve who writes …At school we are doing projects on reading habits of people in different countries. Could you tell me what kind of books you and the members of your family like reading? As for the family news, my sister got married last week…

Write a letter to Steve. In your letter – tell him about the kind of books you and your relatives like to read– ask 3 questions about his sister’s husband Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing. 23 Lenskaya StreetMoscowRussiaNovember 10th, 2008Dear Steve,Thanks a lot for your letter. I’m glad your sister got married. How are you getting on with her husband? Is he a student? What kind of music does he enjoy?In your letter you asked me about the reading habits in my family. Well, my father often reads newspapers and magazines. He thinks that it is the only way to be in the know of everything. And my mother is keen on reading romances and modern novels. However, she wouldn’t mind reading about the life of well-known people.As for me, I enjoy reading detective stories because they have interesting story lines and unusual endings. I am particularly captivated by characters who conduct investigations.Actually, I’d better go now as I’ve got loads of homework to do tonight. Write soon!All the best,Ivan

 

1.2. Схема оценивания письма личного характера

Письменная речь относится к продуктивным видам речевой деятельности и, в первую очередь, оценивается с точки зрения степени выполнения коммуникативной задачи.

Тем не менее до недавнего времени успешность работы учащихся определялась в основном по количеству лексико-грамматических ошибок, и отметка выставлялась без учета выполнения коммуникативной задачи. При этом решение было субъективным: не было ни критериев, ни шкал, позволяющих перейти на субъективно-объективное мнение. В настоящее время такие критерии разработаны. Сейчас наиболее важными из них стали «содержание» и «организация текста», так как именно они показывают, насколько полно решена учащимися коммуникативная задача.

Письмо личного характера оценивается экспертами только по двум параметрам: содержание и полнота выполнения задания (максимально 3 балла) и организация текста (максимально 3 балла). Таким образом, за письмо личного характера учащийся может получить максимально 6 баллов.

Под содержанием и полнотой выполнения задания понимается:

• соответствие теме и ситуации общения, указанной в коммуникативном задании, а также полнота раскрытия темы;

• правильность отбора материала с учетом адресата (что адресат уже знает; о чем его нужно поставить в известность; какая информация не является важной и необходимой в данной ситуации);

• использование определенного стиля речи в соответствии с указанной коммуникативной ситуацией;

• соответствие высказывания заданному объему. Под организацией текста понимается:

• логичность в изложении материала;

• связность текста, которая обеспечивается правильным использованием языковых средств передачи логической связи между отдельными частями текста (союзы, вводные слова, местоимения и т. п.);

• структурирование текста: деление на абзацы, наличие вступления и заключения.

Критерии оценивания письма личного характера

 

1.3. Задания на составление письма личного характера

Task 1. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Mary who writes

… It was great to hear that you went to Italy during your spring holidays. I have always wanted to visit this wonderful country. Did you enjoy your journey? What places of interest did you visit? What impressed you most of all? Did you like your hotel?

As for me, I am awfully tired because we’ve got too many tests at school. Can’t wait for the summer break…

Write a letter to Mary. In your letter

– tell her about your journey to Italy

– ask 3 questions about her plans for the summer Write 100–140 words .

Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 2. This is part of a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend. …Do you often have arguments with your parents? I do. My mother thinks that I spend too much time hanging around with my friends. Do you often meet your friends? What do you usually do together? And what do you do when you disagree with your parents about how you spend your free time? Write back soon. Love, Ann Write back to Ann. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about her relations with her younger sister Write 100–140 words . Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 3. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend who writes …We moved to a new house a few weeks ago and I changed school. At first I was a bit afraid but I made new friends sooner than I expected. The teachers are nice and everything seems to be working out well. And what about you? Have you made any friends in your new school? Do you enjoy studying there? Have you got any new subjects this year? I’ve got to go now! It’s time for my music lesson. Drop me a line when you can. Lots of love, Emily Write a letter to Emily. In your letter– answer her questions and tell her about your new school– ask 3 questions about her preferences in music Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 4. This is part of a letter from Harry, your English pen-friend. …I’m fine but I’ve got a very busy week ahead. I’m a member of the school team and we are preparing for an important match in the National Championship. Are you fond of football? Do you watch football matches on TV? What other sports do you enjoy? Well, I’d better go now. I’ve got to do some more training – I don’t want to lose this match. Take care and write back soon. Write back to Harry. In your letter– answer his questions– ask 3 questions about his preparation for the match Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 5. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend George who writes …At school we are doing projects on famous singers from different countries. Could you tell me about any famous Russian singer? What is he or she famous for? How long has he/she been singing? Do you enjoy his/ her songs? Have you ever been to his/her concerts? As for my school trip to London last week, it was really wonderful… Write a letter to George. In your letter– tell him about the singer you admire most of all– ask 3 questions about his trip to London Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 6. This is part of a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend. …So you see that I enjoy films based on true historic facts whereas most of my friends are fond of soap operas. Do you agree that soaps don’t show life realistically? What kind of films do you like watching? Do you prefer watching films in the cinema or at home? Why? We all miss you, too. Everybody sends their love. Can’t wait to see you in the summer. Write back soon. All my love, Tina Write back to Tina. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about her family Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 7. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Rob who writes …and then there’s this chess tournament on Saturday. If I win, I’ll be the champion of our school. Who knows? Oh, yeah. I wanted to ask you something. We have to write a report on technology for school. Could you tell me a few things about how you use technology in your life? You know, computers, mobiles, TV, that sort of things. Oh, and tell me something about the other members of your family, too, and how they use technology. Anyway, I was talking to Sam the other day and he says that… Write back to Rob. In your letter– answer his questions– ask 3 questions about playing chess Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 8. This is part of a letter from Jane, your English pen-friend. …My home town is rather small but I like it. The people here are very friendly and they try and keep our town clean and beautiful. And do you enjoy living in a big city? How do you spend your spare time there? Anyway, I’m thinking of travelling around Russia next summer. Could you tell me what weather to expect? Should I take warm clothes with me?.. Write a letter to Jane. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about her home town Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 9. This is part of a letter from your German pen-friend. …I find it a bit difficult to understand English grammar. What about you? Do you do grammar exercises? Do you think that it’s necessary to remember all grammar rules? Have you got any plans for the summer? I was thinking of going to a language school in the UK to improve my English. It would be a lot more fun if we went together. What do you think? Anyway, I have to go now as I’m helping my Dad in the shop. Hope to hear from you soon. All the best, Kerstin Write back to Kerstin. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about the trip to the UK Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 10. This is part of a letter from Adam, your English pen-friend, whom you’re going to visit in summer. …As for me, I’m crazy about skateboarding and I love rock and pop music. I think my favourite band at the moment is Radiohead. Do you know them? What kind of things do you like doing and what music do you enjoy? Is there anything you particularly want to do while you’re here? I guess you’ll be busy at the language school during the day, but we can do something in the evenings and at weekends. Also, let me know if there are any kinds of food you don’t like… Write back to Adam. In your letter– answer his questions– ask 3 questions about his family and the language school Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 11. You have received a letter from your English pen-friend Mary who writes …In your previous letter you told me that you had joined your school Literature Club. I wonder what you do at your club meetings. Can I help you in any way? As for me, I enjoy reading very much and I would be really interested to know about famous Russian writers. Who is your favourite writer at the moment? Have you got enough time for reading?.. Write a letter to Mary. In your letter– answer her questions and tell her about your Literature Club– ask 3 questions about her reading preferences Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 12. This is part of a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend. …I’ve always wanted to visit Moscow so it’ll be great to spend a week at your place. Any ideas as to what we might do? Should I bring any special clothes? Do let me know if there is anything I can get you from England? Write back soon. All the best, Gloria Write back to Gloria. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about her eating habits. Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 13. This is part of a letter you have received from your English pen-friend. …We are doing a project at school on how computers are changing people’s lives. Please could you tell me how computers are changing things and how people feel about it? Have you got a computer at home? What do you use it for? As for me, I’m going on holiday with my parents next weekend… Write back to your pen-friend. In your letter– answer his/her questions about computers– ask 3 questions about his holiday Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 14. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Paul who writes …At school we are doing projects on sports popular in different countries. Could you tell me about two kinds of sports that are popular with Russian teenagers? Why are they popular? Do you have enough time for sports? By the way, I am thinking of joining our school drama club. Is that a good idea?.. Write a letter to Paul. In your letter– answer all his questions– ask 3 questions about his school drama club Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 15. This is part of a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend. …By the way, we are doing a project at college on the fashion industry in different countries. It would be nice if you could tell me what clothes are popular with teenagers in Russia. Do you have any special fashion for teens? What kind of clothes do you prefer? Write back soon. All my love, Jessica Write back to Jessica. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about her tastes in clothes Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 16. This is part of a letter from your English pen-friend. …I’m going to visit Russia in July. I’ve read a lot about Moscow but I’m especially interested in its history. What historical sites and museums would you recommend me to visit? Is museum entrance fee high in Moscow? Are there any weekdays when the entrance is free for students? Do they allow taking pictures inside? Well, I must finish now because I’ve got an exam tomorrow. Write back soon and tell me all your news. All the best, John Write back to John. In your letter– answer his questions– ask 3 questions about his exams and his journey to Russia. Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 17. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Andrew who writes …In your letter you said you were organising a surprise party for your friend. Was it difficult to organise? Did you decorate the place? What kind of food did you provide? What did your friend say? I’d love to hear how it went because my parents let me have a big party at home on my birthday but I’ve got to organise everything myself. I’ve never done anything like that before… Write a letter to Andrew. In your letter– answer his questions giving relevant details– ask 3 questions about his birthday party Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 18. This is part of a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend. …Guess what! My parents let me have a pet for my birthday. Isn’t that great? I haven’t decided yet what kind of pet to get. Have you got a pet? What animals do you think make good pets? Is it difficult to look after your pet? Let me know what you think. Anyway, I’d better go now. I’ve got loads of homework to do tonight (unfortunately!). Write soon! All my love, Donna Write back to Donna. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about her house Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 19. This is an extract from your pen-friend’s postcard: …I’m having a busy time at the moment as I have to write lots of Christmas cards to all my friends and relatives. Do you celebrate Christmas in Russia? What holidays are celebrated in your country? What is your favourite holiday? How do you celebrate it? Well, I’d better go now. I’ve got to help mum with cooking. I can’t wait to hear from you. Lots of love, Jackie Write back to Jackie. In your letter– answer her questions about Russian holidays– ask 3 questions about British holidays Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 20. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Susie who writes …We’re doing a project this month at school on eating habits and customs around the world. Will you be able to help me by telling me what the traditional meals are in your country? What do people typically eat and at what time of day? What are your favourite dishes? As for me, I’m thinking of going on a diet as I feel I’m too fat… Thanks very much! Write a letter to Susie. In your letter– answer her questions and tell her about eating habits in Russia– ask 3 questions about her new diet Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 21. This is part of a letter from Sheryl, your English-speaking pen-friend. …My friend and I are planning to start a new hobby but we haven’t decided yet what hobby to choose. Do you have any hobbies? Do you feel you have enough time for your hobbies? What hobbies are popular with teenagers in Russia? Are there any hobbies you’d like to take up? As for my school exams, they are almost over and I’m looking forward to my summer break… Write back to Sheryl. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about her plans for the summer Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 22. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend David who writes …At school we are doing projects on teenagers in different countries. What is your idea of a typical Russian teenager? You will help me a lot if you could tell me about Russian teenagers. What do they enjoy? What are their most popular leisure activities? Anyway, the weather is fine today and I’m going to try my new skateboard… Write a letter to David. In your letter– tell him about Russian teenagers– ask 3 questions about his hobbies Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 23. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Sam who writes …At school we are doing projects on the greatest capitals of the world. I’ve decided to write about Moscow. Could you tell me about your city? What is special about your capital? As for the family news, my sister got married last week… Write a letter to Sam. In your letter– tell him about Moscow– ask 3 questions about his school Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 24. This is part of a letter from Jill, your English-speaking pen-friend. …Thanks for inviting me to stay with you when I visit your country next month. I\'m not sure how to get to your apartment from the airport. Could you write back giving me some basic instructions? What would be the best way of transport for me? I\'d prefer one that isn\'t too expensive! Just one other thing – what will the weather be like when I get there? (Just so I\'ll know what clothes to pack!) … Write back to Jill. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about her plans Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 25. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend who writes It\'s a really brave step to take a year out of college to come and spend 6 months in the UK! What are you planning to do with your time? Find a job? Learn some new skills? Write back and give me more details of your plans so I can do my best to help you have a good time… I’ve got to go now! It’s time for my favourite TV show. Keep in touch! Lots of love, Chemmy Write a letter to Chemmy. In your letter– answer her questions and tell her about your plans– ask 3 questions about her favourite TV shows. Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 26. This is part of a letter from your English pen-friend. …Have you ever thought what you are going to do in the future? As for me, I really don’t know what career to choose although my parents say it’s time I made a choice. What kind of job would you prefer to do? Have you asked your parents for advice? Would you like to follow in their footsteps? Anyway, we’ve got some time to think. Let me know what you think about it. All the best, Jack Write back to Jack. In your letter– answer his questions– ask 3 questions about his hobbies and leisure activities Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 27. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Pam who writes … I don’t think it’s fair to make children do household chores because we’re too busy at school. And what about you? Do you help your mum about the house? What kind of things do you have to do? Do you have enough time to do chores? As for my plans for the summer, I am going to Italy with my friends. We’ll be studying Italian at a summer school. It’s really great! Hope to hear from you soon! Love, Pam Write a letter to Pam. In your letter– answer her questions tell her about your household duties– ask 3 questions about her trip to Italy Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 28. This is part of a letter from Jenny, your English-speaking pen-friend. …I’m getting ready for my A-levels at the moment. It’s rather difficult for me to remember all the necessary facts and figures. And when do you have exams in Russia? Do you find it easy to revise? Do you study at night? Is there any advice you could give me? And another thing! My parents say you could come and visit us in summer. Would you like to? … Write back to Jenny. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about your trip to England. Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 29. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend who writes … All in all, my birthday party was great! However, one of my friends came to the party in casual clothes. Just jeans and a T-shirt! Of course I didn’t say anything but she felt a bit left out. I was really sorry for her! And what do you usually wear when you go to a birthday party? Is it important in Russia to wear smart clothes at parties? What would you do if you were me? I’ve got to go now as I have loads of homework to do. Drop me a line when you can. Lots of love, Patricia Write a letter to Patricia. In your letter– answer her questions– ask 3 questions about her birthday presents Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 30. This is part of a letter from your English pen-friend. …Guess what! All my friends are going to ‘Waterland’ next week and I can’t swim! What shall I do? If I go with my friends, they will be teasing me all the time. I have wanted to learn to swim for a long time but I feel embarrassed to start learning at my age. What would you advise me to do? Is it difficult to learn how to swim? How many lessons will I need? Well, I’d better go now as my mum’s calling me for dinner. Take care and keep in touch! Yours, Mark Write back to Mark. In your letter– answer his questions– ask 3 questions about his favourite sports Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

 

1.4. Варианты писем личного характера

Task 1.

3/9 B. Polyanka Street

Moscow

Russia

14 May 2008

Dear Mary,

Thanks a lot for your letter. I hope you passed all your tests!

First of all, let me tell you about my one-week package holiday to Rome. Everything was OK, but we didn’t like our hotel. It was too noisy and the food was awful. We even had a stomachache and consulted a doctor. However, all the excursions were extremely interesting. We visited the Vatican and were impressed by the famous St. Peter’s Cathedral. I also enjoyed the Colosseum and other sights of Rome. All in all, we enjoyed our holiday.

And what about you? What are your plans for the summer? Will you come to visit us? Russia is a unique country and I’ll show you lots of interesting things. If you make up your mind, let me know what cities you would like to visit.

Hope to hear from you soon.

Lots of love,

Lucy

Task 2. 10 Lenina StreetVladimirRussia15/06/08Dear Ann,Thanks for your letter. I’m glad you passed your History test!I’m sorry you don’t get on well with your parents. As for me, I have practically no problems with mine, although we do quarrel sometimes because I spend too much time playing computer games. In this case I try to talk to them and find the way out. Unfortunately, I can meet my friends only at weekends and we usually play football together. It’s our favourite game.And how do you get on with your sister? Do you play together? Do you help her with her homework? I wish I had a sister or a brother!Anyway, keep smiling whatever happens! I’d better go now as I’ve got loads of homework to do (as always). Write back soon! Lots of love, Kate

Task 3. 3 Spartakovskaya StreetMoscowRussia20/09/08Dear Emily,Thank you for your letter. It was great to hear about your new house!As for my new school, it’s very big! It has three computer rooms and wonderful sports facilities. Actually, it seems a nice place and I enjoy studying there. The kids in my class are very friendly. I’ve already made some new friends and we often meet after classes. I’ve got only one new subject this year. It’s Economics and I’m beginning to think that it’s not difficult, after all!By the way, what music styles do you enjoy? Have you got any favourite bands? Would you like to go to their concert? As for me, I prefer Radiohead. They are cool!I’d better go now. Mum wants me to help with the housework. Take care and stay in touch!Lots of love,Ann

Task 4. 2 Palekhskaya StreetMoscowRussiaOctober 1stDear Harry,Hi! How’s it going? Thanks for your last letter. I’m glad you are in your school football team now!In your letter you asked me about football. Well, I’m really fond of it. It’s a great game and I’m always happy when my team wins. But I don’t watch football matches on TV because it’s rather boring. I prefer playing to watching as it’s more exciting. I’m also keen on roller-skating. It’s fun to take part in street competitions and to perform different tricks.Anyway, what about your preparation for the National Championship? Do you work hard? How many times a week do you train? Do you get on well with your team-mates?Well, I’d better go now as I have to tidy up my room. Write back soon!All the best,Ivan

Task 5. 135 Bashilovskaya StreetMoscowRussiaApril 11thDear George,Thanks a lot for your letter. Sounds like you had a great time in London! What impressed you most of all? Did you take any pictures? Were you tired?I’m glad I can help you with your project on famous singers. Well, my favourite singer is Dima Bilan. He made his debut at the festival ‘New Wave’ in 2002 so he has already been singing for 6 years. Now Dima is a famous pop singer known for his songs like ‘Never Let You Go’ and ‘Believe’. I enjoy his songs because of his beautiful voice. Unfortunately, I’ve never been to his concerts but I’d love to.Anyway, let me know if you have any other questions. I’d better go now as I have to take my dog for a walk. Write soon!Yours,Alex

Task 6. 41 Kosmonavtov StreetMoscowRussia15/02/08Dear Tina,Thanks for your letter. I’m glad you liked the postcard I sent you!In your letter you asked me about my attitude to soaps. Well, I agree that soaps don’t show life realistically because their plots are rather unbelievable and all emotions are exaggerated. As for me, I prefer whodunits, which keep me in suspense till the very end. I usually watch films at home but I never miss a chance to goto the cinema with friends. It’s much more exciting to watch films together.I miss you greatly! Write back soon and tell me all your latest news. How is your sister? Has she passed her driving test? And what about your mother? Has she got over the flu?I’d better go now as I promised mum to help her with the washing.Love,Ann

Task 7. 15 Dubrovskaya StreetMoscowRussia25/05/08Dear Rob,It was great to hear from you! I’m glad you managed to talk to Sam. Please give my best regards to him.You asked me about technology. Well, I’ve got a new mobile. It’s got a camera so I’m taking lots of pictures at the moment. I’ve also got a computer but I use it mainly for surfing the Net. Of course we’ve got things like a TV, a DVD player and a music centre. My parents usually watch TV whereas my brother spends hours playing computer games.Anyway, I’m glad you’ve made such progress in chess. Is it difficult to learn how to play it? Will I be able to do it on my own? How can I get started?I’ve got to go now as I’m helping my Dad in the garage.All the best,Andrew

Task 8. 14 Pushkinskaya StreetMoscowRussiaMay 19thDear Jane,Thanks for your letter. I’m glad you’re going to visit Russia. The weather in summer is usually hot so I don’t think you’ll need lots of warm clothes. However, you’d better take a jacket as nights can be quite cool.In your letter you asked me about the life in a big city. As for me, I enjoy living in Moscow as there are lots of parks and cosycafes, museums and galleries. In the evenings I usually go for a walk with my friends and at the weekend we go to the theatre or visit a museum. Have you got any museums in your town? Are they free for students? Are there any sports facilities?I’d better go now as I’ve got to do my homework – boring! Can’t wait to see you!Lots of love,Rita

Task 9. 7 Kasatkina StreetMoscowRussiaOctober 1stDear Kerstin,Thanks for your letter. I’m glad your arm is out of plaster now!I agree with you that English grammar is rather difficult so I think it’s necessary to learn grammar rules and to do exercises. As for me, I do it on a regular basis.Going to a language school together is a great idea! We could practise our English and visit lots of places of interest. I’m absolutely free this summer so I can go whenever you like.Write and tell me what dates suit you best. Which course would you like to do? What level do you think we are? Where would you prefer to stay? Meanwhile, I’ll make some enquiries about language schools in the UK. I’ll get in touch soon. I hope it all works out!Lots of love,Helen

Task 10. 9 Lazo Street St. Petersburg Russia21/04/08Dear Adam,Thanks for your letter. It was great to hear from you. I can’t wait to meet you and your parents in July!Well, we’ve obviously got a lot in common. I’m also crazy about rock music and my favourite band is Radiohead, too! I’ve never done skateboarding, though, but I’d love to try. I enjoy basketball and I love playing computer games. Do you?I’m a bit worried about the language school. Is it far from your house? Should I bring any books with me? Will I have to do much homework? If I have, I’m afraid I’ll be busy in the evenings. Actually, I wouldn’t mind any activity. It will be fun just to be in another country.Anyway, I know we’re going to be really good friends. Please write back soon.Buy for now!Sasha

Task 11. 49 Gagarina StreetOrelRussiaOctober 15thDear Mary,It was great to hear from you again! I’m glad you have no problems at school now.In your letter you asked me about our school Literature Club. Well, at our club meetings we share our views on books we’ve read and do projects on popular writers and poets. My favourite writer is A. Chekhov, who was one of the most famous Russian playwrights. However, I particularly admire him because of his wonderful short stories. Unfortunately, I don’t have much time for reading as I’m too busy at school.It’ll be great if you could help me with my project. What kind of books do you enjoy? What book are you reading now? Who is your favourite writer?Well, I’d better go now. There is a film starting in a minute. Keep in touch!Lots of love,Dasha

Task 12. 30 Dubninskaya StreetMoscowRussiaSeptember 30thDear Gloria,Hi! Thanks a lot for your letter. Sorry I haven’t answered earlier but I was really busy with my school.I’m glad you are going to visit Moscow. We can go wherever you want but I think you’d like the Kremlin and the Tretyakov Gallery.I’ve also got some ideas for our nightlife! And if you fancy going to the theatre in the evening, you should bring an evening dress. I’ll be delighted if you could get me a T-shirt with views of London.Well, Mum wants to know what kinds of food you enjoy eating. Do you eat meat and fish? What do you usually have for breakfast? Are there any kinds of food you don’t like?Now I’ve got to do my homework. Please write back soon. Can’t wait to meet you!Lots of love,Kate

Task 13. 120 Fedoskinskaya StreetMoscowRussiaJune 16thDear Sam,Hi! How is it going? I hope you’re well. Thanks for your last letter. It was great to hear from you!I’ll try to answer your questions. No doubt computers have made our lives easier and more exciting. We needn’t go to libraries as we can find almost all information on the Net. Moreover, computers help us to relax although some people feel that they are rather addictive. I’m happy that I’ve got a computer. It helps me with my projects and I also use educational programmes. Of course I do play computer games but not very often.Anyway, write back soon and tell me about your holiday. Did you enjoy it? What interesting places did you visit? Did you make any new friends?I’d better go now as I have to feed my kitten.Best wishes,Artem

Task 14. 54 Kirova StreetNovosibirskRussiaSeptember 28thDear Paul,Thanks for your letter. I’m really glad you like your new school!I guess I should start by telling you about sports in Russia. I believe the most popular sport with boys is football because it’sa very exciting game. Girls enjoy gymnastics as it helps them to keep fit. As for me, I’m crazy about football, too. I wish I could play every day but I don’t have enough time (unfortunately!).Well, I think joining a drama club is a good idea. One day you may become a famous actor. Who knows? Write back and tell me about your club. How many pupils are there? What plays are you going to put on? Are you given any costumes?Anyway, I’d better go now as I’ve got loads of homework to do. Keep in touch!Best wishes,Slava

Task 15. 43 Borodina StreetKrasnodarRussiaMay 1stDear Jessica,Hi! I was so happy to get your letter! It was great to hear your news.In your letter you asked me about popular teenage clothes in Russia. Well, I guess today’s teenagers have a new tag line, ‘I’ve just got to be me.’ Wearing baggy jeans and T-shirts is still important but teens like to add their own unique pieces of clothing. As for me, I enjoy a popular layered style and I usually wear denim jeans, button up shirts and open cardigans as they’re very comfortable.Anyway, write back and tell me about your tastes in clothes. What kind of clothes do you prefer? Do you follow any fashion trends? Do you enjoy wearing a school uniform?Well, I’d better go now as I have to cook dinner. Take care and keep in touch!Love,Marina

Task 16. 8 Nagornaya StreetMoscowRussia15/06/08 Dear John,Hi! How’s it going? Thanks for your letter. I hope you did well at your exam. Was it difficult?Well, I’m really glad you’re going to visit Russia. There are lots of historical sites and museums in Moscow. You should by all means visit the Kremlin, the State Historical Museum and the Borodino Panorama Museum. Unfortunately, there is no free admission for students; however, the entrance fees aren’t very high. Taking pictures is usually allowed although sometimes you’ll have to pay a small fee.Anyway, write back and tell me all your travel details. Would you like me to meet you at the airport? How long are you going to stay in Moscow? What other cities are you planning to visit?I’ve got to go now because Mum’s calling me to dinner. Take care!All the best,Paul

Task 17. 18 Kirova StreetKazanRussiaMarch 1stDear Andrew,It was great to receive your letter and to learn the latest news! I wish you a happy birthday and many happy returns of the day!In your letter you asked me about a surprise party. Well, it wasn’t difficult to organise it. A friend of mine offered his flat for the party as his parents went on holiday. We decorated it with flowers and balloons. We also bought sandwiches, fruit and lots of mineral water. Everybody danced and played different games. Our friend was delighted. He said he had never had such a party before. I hope this helps.Anyway, write back soon and tell me how it all went. Did you have many guests? What did you do? Did you enjoy your party?Unfortunately, it’s time for me to go to bed.All the best,Dima

Task 18. 17 Pilotov Street St. Petersburg Russia15/05/08Dear Donna,I was glad to receive your letter. It’s really great that your parents let you have a pet.As for me, I’ve got a kitten called Musik. It’s not difficult to look after him as I only need to clean his litter tray and to feed him. I think cats, dogs, hamsters and parrots make good pets because they are funny to watch and it’s easy to take care of them.Is your house big? Have you got a room of your own? Is there a garden around your house? If you say ‘yes’, you may have a dog or a cat. Otherwise you’d better buy a hamster or a parrot as they don’t need so much space.Well, I must finish now as I’ve got my aerobic class. Take care and stay in touch!Love,Mary

Task 19. 15 Tverskaya StreetMoscowRussia26/12/08Dear Jackie,Thanks a lot for your postcard. I also wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!Actually, in Russia, we celebrate Christmas but we do it on January 7th. There are lots of other holidays such as Women’s Day, May Day and Victory Day. My favourite holiday is New Year’s Day as I always get lots of presents. We usually decorate a fir-tree and put presents under it. When the Kremlin clock strikes twelve, we wish each other ‘Happy New Year’. Then we usually go for a walk and let off fireworks.And what about you? How do you celebrate New Year’s Day? Are there any holidays connected with British history? How do you mark them?Well, I’d better go now. It’s time to do my homework. Take care and write back soon. Love, Nina

Task 20. 43 Sedova StreetTulaRussia12/07/08Dear Susie,Thanks for your letter. I’m glad you did well at your GCSE exams!In your letter you asked me about eating habits in Russia. Well, we’ve got lots of traditional dishes, for example, studen (jellied chopped pieces of pork or veal meat) or pelmeny (meat-filled dumplings). My favourite dish is pancakes with caviar but I also eat them with honey or sour cream. In Russia, we have three main meals a day: breakfast in the morning, dinner at midday and supper in the evening. We also like to drink tea with lemon in the afternoon.Anyway, I’m not quite sure about dieting. What kind of diet have you chosen? How long are you going to be on a diet? Will you eat meat?Well, I’ve got to go now. Hope to hear from you soon!Love,Vera

Task 21. 13 Shirokaya StreetMoscowRussiaJune 16thDear Sheryl,It was great to hear from you! I’m really glad you passed your History test.You asked me about hobbies which are popular with Russian teens. Well, many teenagers are interested in music andplaying computer games. Others are into collecting or doing sports. As for me, my hobby is cooking. I collect traditional Russian recipes and cook these dishes. However, I feel I don’t have enough time for my hobby as I’ve got too much homework. If I had more free time, I’d take up photography. It’s really exciting.Anyway, it’s great that school is over. What are you going to do in summer? Will you stay with your grandparents? Would you like to visit other countries?Well, I’d better go now. I’ve got to get ready for my piano class. Wish me luck!Take care,Alina

Task 22. 16 Primakova Street St. Petersburg Russia24 April 2008Dear David,Thanks for your letter. Sorry for not having written earlier but I was too busy at school.You asked me about a typical Russian teenager. Well, Russian teenagers are in fact very ordinary. They think their teachers make them work too hard and friendship is the most important thing in their lives.Teens always invent new hobbies and the most popular leisure activity nowadays is playing computer games. Most teenagers are fond of sports and are crazy about modern music. Parents think that modern teens are awful but I think they are criticised for no reason.Anyway, it’s great that you like skateboarding. It’s an exciting sport. How long have you been doing it? Do you know any tricks? Have you got any other hobbies?I’ve got to go now. Take care and keep in touch!Yours,Andrew

Task 23. 5 Otradnaya StreetMoscowRussia16/03/08Dear Sam,Thanks for your letter! It was great to hear from you so soon!You asked me to tell you about Moscow. Well, it is a very beautiful city especially in autumn when all trees are of different colours. The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin. It’s an ancient fortress with beautiful churches inside.Moscow is a unique city, where history and modern life are brought together. On the one hand, you can enjoy traditional Russian festivals such as Maslenitsa. On the other hand, Moscow is a modern 24-hour city where you can visit different theatres, cinemas and exhibitions.By the way, will you tell me about your school and school life? Do you have any clubs at school? Are you given much homework?Please write back. I look forward to your reply.Yours,Boris

Task 24. Flat 2427 Festivalnaya StreetMoscowRussia26/05/08Dear Jill,Thanks for your letter. I’m looking forward to your arrival!It won’t be difficult for you to get to my place. Just take an express bus to “Rechnoy Vokzal” metro station. When you get off, turn right and go down Festivalnaya Street. My block of flats is about five minutes walk. I think it’s the easiest and the cheapest way.As for the weather, it’s quite nice at the moment and the forecast is fine. I think it will be hot and sunny so take a swimmingcostume. By the way, what sights would you like to visit? What would you prefer to do in the evenings? I can buy tickets to the Bolshoi Theatre. Would you like to go?Anyway, I’m sure we’ll have a wonderful time together. Can’t wait to see you!Lots of love,Nastya

Task 25. 16 Osipenko StreetMoscowRussia20/02/09Dear Chemmy,It was great to get your letter. Thanks a lot for offering your help.As for my trip to the UK, I’m planning to study at a language school and take the FCE exam. I’m going to enter Oxford University so I have to speak fluent English. I hope you can advise me a good school for preparation. It would be great if it was not far from your place so that we could spend time together.Oh, and another thing! I’d like to find a part-time job to pay for my expenses.By the way, what TV shows do you enjoy? Are they funny or educational? Do you watch soaps? Actually, I do but not often. Just to relax.I’d better go now as I’ve got loads of homework. Hope to hear from you soon!Love,Sonya

Task 26. 60 Sverdlov StreetUfaRussia23 March 2008 Dear Jack,Thanks for your last letter. I’m glad you get on well with your brother.Well, I agree that it’s difficult to choose our future occupation as there are lots of different jobs. However, I wouldn’t like to follow in my parents’ footsteps as I’m not interested in their profession. I’ve asked my father for advice and he believes I must choose my future career according to my preferences.As for me, I enjoy travelling and I want to see the world. So I’d rather work in tourism. But I haven’t made the final choice yet.Have you got any hobbies? What are your favourite leisure activities? Do you enjoy active or passive holidays? Some people turn their hobbies into their careers.Hope this helps. Drop me a line when you can.All the best,Peter

Task 27. 28 Kurchatova StreetMoscowRussia24 May 2008Dear Pam,Thanks for your letter. It was great to hear from you!In your letter you asked me about my household duties. Of course I have to do some chores because my mum’s too busy at work. I think everyone in the family has to do their fair share. Actually, I don’t do much, just go shopping and clean my room. It doesn’t take long so I have enough time to do my homework and to chat with my friends.Anyway, it was great to hear about your trip to Italy! What city are you going to? How long are you going to stay there? Will you take any exams? Write back and tell me about your holidays.Well, I’d better go now as I’ve got to take my dog for a walk. It’s also my duty.Love,Lucy

Task 28. Flat 2210 Ozernaya StreetMoscowRussia26/05/08Dear Jenny,I was happy to hear from you! I’m sure you’ll pass successfully all your exams!In Russia, we have State Exams in June and it’s rather difficult to prepare for them, too. I started to get ready about a year ago but still have lots of work to do. I usually don’t study at night as I find it useless. I think the best way of revision is to study with your friend. It’s easier for me to remember facts and figures when I talk about them.Thanks a lot for your invitation. I’ll be glad to visit you in summer. What clothes shall I bring? How much money should I take? Will we be able to travel round Great Britain?Anyway, I’m sure we’ll have a wonderful time together. Can’t wait to see you!Write back!Olesya

Task 29. 14 Gagarina StreetKazanRussia20/09/08Dear Patricia,Thanks for your letter. I’m glad your birthday party was a great success!Well, in Russia we don’t pay much attention to clothes but of course everybody wants to look great! Actually, any clothes will do if a person feels comfortable. As for me, I usually wear a skirt and a smart blouse. You were quite right not to take any notice of your friend’s clothes. If I were you, I would have done the same. It’s not the clothes that count, after all.By the way, what birthday presents did you get? Did your parents give you what you wanted? What presents did you like most of all? As for me, I prefer books.I’d better go now. Mum wants me to help with the housework. Take care and stay in touch!Lots of love,Ilona

Task 30. 19 Larina Street Rostov-upon-Don Russia20 May 2008 Dear Mark,Thanks for your last letter. I’m glad you got over the flu!Well, I think you shouldn’t feel embarrassed. I guess there are lots of attractions in ‘Waterland’ like water slides or water games so nobody will notice that you can’t swim. You should definitely go there and have fun!Yet I would start learning to swim if I were you. It isn’t very difficult so you will need five or six lessons. Swimming is my favourite sport because it’s a good exercise for the whole body so you’ll always stay in shape.And what about you? What sports do you enjoy? Have you got any favourite sportsmen? Are you fond of extreme sports?Well, I’d better go now as I have to do the shopping. Write back soon!All the best,Vasya

 

Глава 2. Письмо официального характера

 

2.1. Рекомендации по составлению официального письма

Существует множество причин для написания официальных писем. Тем не менее можно выделить несколько основных видов деловой переписки:

• письмо о приеме на работу/курсы

• письмо-запрос

• письмо-жалоба

Одним из наиболее важных является письмо о приеме наработу с приложенным к нему резюме.

Письма о приеме на работу пишутся непосредственно работодателю. Их основная цель – создать первое впечатление о вас, поэтому письмо следует писать таким образом, чтобы оно запоминалось при чтении. Большинство писем о приеме на работу пишутся в ответ на публикацию о вакансиях. Тем не менее в письме необходимо указывать должность, на которую вы претендуете. Ведь в организации может быть несколько различных вакансий.

При написании делового письма необходимо придерживаться следующих правил.

> Используйте формальный стиль письма, а именно:

• не употребляйте сокращенные формы, такие как don’t или can’t ;

• не ставьте скобки и восклицательные знаки – это свойственно неформальному стилю письма;

• не начинайте предложения со слов and , but или also . В разговорном языке вы можете их использовать, но избегайте этого в формальном сочинении;

• не употребляйте вводные слова, характерные для неформального стиля ( well , you know и т. д.);

• избегайте слишком простых предложений. Объединяйте простые предложения в сложные, используя логические средства связи.

> В начале письма в правом верхнем углу указывается адрес пишущего в следующем порядке:

•  номер дома, название улицы

 город и почтовый индекс

 страна

 ваш e-mail или номер телефона (факультативно)

> Под адресом, пропустив строку, необходимо написать дату письма:

June 7th,

20087 June 2008

или менее официально:

07/06/08

> Если в задании указан адрес работодателя, его необходимо написать слева после даты письма, в следующем порядке:

•  имя и фамилия получателя (если указаны в объявлении);

•  его должность (факультативный параметр);

 наименование компании;

 номер дома, улица;

 город и почтовый индекс;

 страна (если письмо направляется в другую страну) После адреса необходимо пропустить строку.

> Письмо начинается с официального обращения:

Dear Sir,

Dear Madam,

Dear Sir/Madam, если в объявлении не указана фамилия работодателя

или

Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms Smith, если в объявлении указана фамилия работодателя.

После обращения обязательно ставится запятая!

> Разделите текст своего письма на несколько логических абзацев. Абзацы могут отделяться пустой строкой.

1. В первом абзаце следует объяснить причину, по которой вы пишете письмо, а также указать, где и когда вы увидели объявление о приеме на работу. Можно использовать следующие фразы-клише:

I am writing in response to your advertisement, which appeared in ….

I am writing with regard to your advertisement, which I saw

Вы можете также написать, почему вас интересует эта должность:

I am particularly interested in the position of … because/as

I wish to gain experience of/in …

I wish to extend my experience

2. Основная часть письма (2–3 абзаца). В ней вы должны дать краткое описание своего образования и профессионального опыта, уделяя особое внимание тем качествам, которые наилучшим образом отвечают требованиям к кандидату на эту должность:

I am a seventeen-year-old student at …

I hold/have a qualification in …

I am generally considered to be outgoing/sociable/hardworking/etc.

I have some experience of this work because …

Although I have no direct experience, I have …

Не забудьте задать интересующие вас вопросы, например, о режиме работы или об оплате труда:

I wonder if you could tell me …

I would be grateful if you could inform me …

3. В последнем параграфе вы можете указать, что прилагаете свое резюме, и выразить готовность предоставить дополнительную информацию:

If you require further information, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Вам следует также сообщить, когда можете прийти на интервью:

I am available for interview at any time/at your convenience.

I would be glad to attend an interview.

>  В конце письма на отдельной строке упоминается о дальнейших контактах:

I look forward to hearing from you.

> На следующей строке указывается завершающая фраза: Если письмо начинается словами: Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms

Smith, то оно должно заканчиваться выражением: Yours sincerely (Искренне Ваш).

Если вступительное обращение имеет вид: Dear Sir/ Madam, то завершающая фраза будет: Yours faithfully (С уважением).

Под завершающей фразой указывается имя и фамилия автора. Например:

Andrew Smirnov

Kate Ivanova

Таким образом, письмо о приеме на работу имеет следующий вид:

Образец письма о приеме на работу

Task 1. A British company, which has its branch office in Moscow, is looking for a new staff at the moment. You saw the following advertisement in The Moscow News. N E E D E D FILM EXTRAS Young people are needed to work in a new drama series being filmed on location. GOOD PAY No experience required, but you must have a good knowledge of English. Contact: David Cranston, Director, Teendrama Productions, 5 Nagornaya Street, Moscow 285115 Write a letter to answer the advertisement. In your letter– explain why you decided to write– describe your appearance– ask about the pay and the time required to do this work. Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.23-8 Lenina Street Moscow 115123 e-mail [email protected] September 2008 Mr David Cranston DirectorTeendrama Productions 5 Nagornaya Street Moscow 285115Dear Mr Cranston,I am writing in response to your advertisement, which appeared in The Moscow News yesterday. I am very interested in this job because my ambition is to become an actress.I am a sixteen-year-old student at a comprehensive school in Moscow. I am quite tall, of slim build, with shoulder-length wavy dark hair. I am generally considered to be outgoing and sociable.I speak fluent English and I have passed the FCE examination with an A.I would be grateful if you could inform me how much the wage would be per hour, and how many hours a day I would be expected to work.If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me. I am available for interview at any time.I look forward to hearing from you.Yours sincerely,Anna Ratova

 

2.2. Задания на составление письма с просьбой о приеме на работу/курсы

Task 1. You have seen the following advertisement in The Moscow Times.

Write a letter to answer the advertisement. In your letter

– explain why you decided to write

– describe your appearance and character

– ask about the accommodation and the time required to do this work.

Write 100–140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 2. You have seen the following advertisement in The Moscow News. #Autogen_eBook_id4 Write a letter to answer the advertisement. In your letter– explain why you decided to write– describe your education and experience– ask about the pay and the time required to do this work. Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 3. You have seen the following advertisement in The St. Petersburg Times. #Autogen_eBook_id5 Write a letter to answer the advertisement. In your letter– describe your qualifications and experience– explain why you would make a good leader– ask about the accommodation and the period of work. Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 4. You have seen the following advertisement in The Russia Journal. #Autogen_eBook_id6 Write a letter to answer the advertisement. In your letter– explain why you decided to write– describe your achievements– ask about the pay and accommodation. Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 5. You have seen the following advertisement in The Student News. #Autogen_eBook_id7 Write a letter to answer the advertisement. In your letter– explain why you decided to write– tell them about yourself and about your educational qualifications– ask about accommodation and the timetable.Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

Task 6. You have seen the following advertisement in The Local News. #Autogen_eBook_id8 Write a letter to answer the advertisement. In your letter– explain why you decided to write– answer the questions– ask about the pay and the food. Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

 

2.3. Варианты писем о приеме на работу/курсы

Task 1.

87—2 Berezovaya Street

Moscow 331412

Russia

September 15, 2008

Mr Michael Cartwright

World Aid,

23 Market Street

Ludford

BN537S

UK

Dear Mr Cartwright,

I am writing with regard to your advertisement in The Moscow

Times last week. I am interested in teaching Maths to primary children

in your camp in Tanzania as my ambition is to become a teacher.

I am an eighteen-year-old student at Moscow State Pedagogical University majoring in Maths. I am tall, slim but physically fit as I am a good sportsman. I consider myself responsible, outgoing and sociable, and I enjoy working with children.

I wonder if you could tell me how long I would be expected to work as I am only available during July and August. Could you also inform me what sort of accommodation you provide?

If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,

Vladimir Magin

Task 2. 35—11 Leninsky Avenue Moscow 11564520 May 2008 Burger King Corporation 5 Leninsky Avenue Moscow 115645Dear Sir or Madam,I am writing to apply for the job of team member that was advertised in last Sunday’s edition of TheMoscow News.I am a second-year student at the College of Trade and Management. In the future, I want to run my own restaurant so I would like to gain the first-hand experience of working in an organisation that has western roots. I have already had some experience of working for McDonalds Restaurant so I know how to work in a team.I would be obliged if you could inform me how much the wage would be per hour, and how many hours a day I would be expected to work.I enclose my CV and would be grateful for the opportunity of an interview.I look forward to hearing from you.Yours faithfully,Vadim Egorov

Task 3. 28—89 Pilotov Street St. Petersburg 196210 Russia5 May 2008 Sparta Adventures Camp 5 Zalokosta Street Athens Attica 10671 GreeceDear Sir/Madam,I am writing to apply for the job of group leader at your Summer Camp in Athens, which I saw in The St. Petersburg Times yesterday.First of all, I speak fluent English and I passed the FCE exam with an A. I am a member of the local football club, and also play volleyball regularly. I don’t have any health problems.Although I have never been a group leader before, I am a President of my class at school. I think I would make a good group leader because I am friendly and get on well with people, especially children.I wonder if you could tell me what sort of accommodation you provide and whether it is possible to work during the period 15–30 July.I look forward to hearing from you.Yours sincerely,Anton Boinov

Task 4. 99—12 Lenina Street Ekaterinburg 620073 Russia25 November 2008 Mr David Wight Teddington Studios Broom Road Teddington Middlesex TW11 9NT EnglandDear Mr Wight,I am writing in response to your advertisement in The Russia Journal, in which you invite applications from young actors for a new TV serial Lily Allen & Friends.I am very interested in this job because I am fond of theatre. I take part in the school play every year, and at present we are rehearsing the New Year play. I am also a good student as I generally do well in tests. My best subject is English and I have passed the FCE exam with an A. I don’t think I am a ‘born leader’, but I like making decisions.I would be grateful if you could inform me how much the salary would be and what sort of accommodation you provide. I enclose a photo as requested.I look forward to hearing from you.Yours sincerely,Phillip Dombrovsky

Task 5. Flat 12521 Izumrudnaya StreetMoscow 129327RussiaApril 10, 2008 Manchester International College 425 Wilmslow Road Manchester M20 4AF United KingdomDear Sir or Madam,I have read your advertisement published in The Student News on April 5th and I am writing to apply for a scholarship to attend an English language course at your college this summer.I am a sixteen-year-old student and I have been learning English for eight years. I have passed the FCE examination in December with excellent results.I want to study in Britain because it is the best way to improve my speaking skills. I believe I would make the most of the opportunity to attend an English course because I am very motivated and hard-working.I wonder if you could tell me how many hours per week I would be expected to study and whether you provide any accommodation.I look forward to hearing from you.Yours faithfully,Anna Belova

Task 6. 89 Gorky Street Sochi 354000 Russia25 May 2008 ZY Cruises PO Box 500 Southampton SO4 5TR UKDear Sir/Madam,I am writing to apply for the job of waiter on your Mediterranean cruise ships, which was advertised in The Local News yesterday. I love the idea of going on a cruise and I feel I am just the person you need.I am a nineteen-year-old student at Sochi College of Food. I worked as a waiter in a local bar last summer and I am interested in getting some experience of working for a foreign company.I speak fluent English and I am quite a cheerful person with a good sense of humour. I also think that I am hard-working and reliable.I wonder if you could tell me what salary I could expect to have and whether the food on board is free of charge.I look forward to hearing from you.Yours faithfully,Andrew Alimov

 

2.4. Другие виды официальных писем

Письмо-запрос информации

Task 1. You have read the following advertisement in The International Student and made notes about some additional information you would like to know. #Autogen_eBook_id9 Write a letter to answer the advertisement. In your letter– explain why you decided to write– ask for information– ask about the dates and the accommodation provided. Write 180–200 words . Remember the rules of letter writing.

Flat 147 21 Selezneva StreetMoscow 224563Russia10 April 2008The World Schools Debating Championships LtdDartmouth House37 Charles StreetLondon W1J 5EDUKDear Sir or Madam,I saw your advertisement for the International Youth Conference Debate on global warming in The International Student and I am writing for more information. I am a member of the school Debating Club and we are all keen to take part in the event, but require further details.First of all, could you tell us whether there is an age limit for the participants? Our team consists of seven students aged between fourteen and eighteen. We would like to know if it is possible for all of us to participate and whether we have to be accompanied by a teacher.We would be grateful if you could inform us about the deadline for the application as well as the exact dates of the debate so that we can make the necessary travel arrangements. Could you please send us an information pack, including application forms and any other useful information about the Conference?Finally, we would appreciate any information concerning accommodation in the area where the competition is going to take place.I look forward to receiving your answer.Yours faithfully,Alexander Shuvalov

Task 2. You have read the following advertisement in The Russia Journal and made notes about some additional information you would like to know. #Autogen_eBook_id10 Write a letter to answer the advertisement. In your letter– explain why you decided to write– provide relevant information about yourself– ask questions to find out more about the organisation. Write 180–200 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

121—10 Palekhskaya Street Moscow 129347Russia14 October 2008 Greenpeace Canonbury Villas London N12PN UKDear Sir or Madam,I am writing to ask for more information in connection with your ‘Call for Volunteers’ to help Greenpeace. I am not a member of Greenpeace but I would like to know more about how I can help.I would be grateful if you could tell me what kind of work is involved and whether I would need any special qualifications. I am sixteen years old and I live in Moscow. I do not have much experience of environmental work but I help to clean up our local park every year.I would also like to know where the work will take place. I would like to work in my own area if possible. I believe there are a lot of ecological problems in my city.Finally, could you tell me when the work would be as I would prefer summer work? I go to school but I have a lot of free time in the holidays. If there is anything else I need to know, please let me know.I look forward to hearing from you.Yours faithfully,Mark Adamov

Task 3. Your parents are organising a party to celebrate your sister’s engagement and wish to book a room for the event. they have seen the following advertisement in The St. Petersburg Times, but they need to know more. #Autogen_eBook_id11 Using the notes they have made, write to the Sokos Hotel Olympic Garden giving relevant details and asking for further information.Write 180–200 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

6-33 Tverskaya Street St. Petersburgh 191015Russia5 August 2008Sales Service CentreSokos Hotel Olympic Garden3A Bataisky PereulokSt. Petersburg 190013Dear Sir/Madam,I am writing with regard to your advertisement which I saw in ‘The St. Petersburg Times’ yesterday. We are organising a party to celebrate the engagement and we need more information.First of all, I would like to know whether it is possible to book a private function room for Saturday, September 30 th from 20.30 till 24.00. We are planning to invite about 60 guests so I wonder if your room is big enough for our party. Another thing which is not clear in the advert is whether you have a special dance area and a music system. We are all keen on dancing so these facilities are very important for us. We would also like to order your catering and want to know what kind of food you provide. I would appreciate if you could inform us about the menu in advance. We would prefer buffet if it is possible.Finally, could you tell us how much the cost per person will be and when the deadline for the reservation is. We would be grateful if you could send us a reservation form.I look forward to hearing from you.Yours faithfully,Vladimir VeselovПисьмо-жалоба

Task 4. You bought an exercise bike after reading the following advertisement in a magazine but contrary to all expectations you are not satisfied with it. #Autogen_eBook_id12 Write a letter of complaint. In your letter– explain what is wrong with the product– give reasons why the product doesn’t meet your requirements– suggest the possible solution to the problem. Write 180–200 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

12—27 Sedova Street, Moscow 145313 Russia 25 December 2008 US Fitness Products Ltd 5912 Oleander Dr. Wilmington, NC 28403 USADear Sir/Madam,I am writing to you about a Life Core Fitness 900UB Upright Bike which I bought from US Fitness Products (Moscow) on 20th November for $800. I enclose copies of the guarantee and receipt.To begin with, this bike is extremely badly made. The speedometer stopped working after a week. Besides, the heart rate control system must also have broken since its readings were not correct. Finally, the pedals broke just as I was cycling at full speed.Moreover, in your advertisement you claim that people will lose at least a kilo a week by using this bike for only half an hour every day. However, I have been using it for a month but seem to have lost no weight at all.When I took the exercise bike back to the shop, not only did the manager refuse to refund my money, but said that he would not repair the bike either.I would like you to refund my money as soon as possible. Unless I get full satisfaction within the next three weeks, I will have to take legal action.I look forward to hearing from you.Yours faithfully,Sergei Bobrov

Task 5. You have seen the interview with a local businessman in The Moscow Times. #Autogen_eBook_id13 Write a letter to the editor of the newspaper. In your letter– explain why you decided to write– explain the reasons for your disagreement Write 180–200 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

6—1 Kosmonavtov Street Moscow 121185 Russia 23 April 2008 The Moscow Times 3 Polkovaya Street Moscow 127018Dear Sir/Madam,I am writing in response to an article I saw in your newspaper on 20th April. In that article, the local businessman, Mr Peter Shirokov, was interviewed. He made a number of statements which I would like to disagree with.First of all, it is not true that the local park is any cleaner now than it was before. A few days ago my family and I were walking in the park and saw there was still lots of litter there.In addition to that, the local council have not done all the work they promised to do to improve sports facilities. Contrary to what Mr Shirokov claims, the basketball court hasn’t been finished yet. Moreover, they promised to build a new swimming pool but didn’t do it.Finally, I would like to point out that the local council have not worked very closely with local people to plan for the future because as far as I know they only organised one meeting.Could I suggest that you interview local people to discover the truth about all the problems in our area?Yours faithfully,Alexander Krasilov

 

Глава 3. Сочинение с элементами рассуждения

 

3.1. Рекомендации по составлению высказывания с элементами рассуждения

При написании сочинения с элементами рассуждения необходимо придерживаться следующих основных правил.

>  Используйте формальный стиль письма, а именно:

• не используйте сокращенные формы, такие как don’t или can’t;

• не используйте скобки и восклицательные знаки – это свойственно неформальному стилю письма;

• не начинайте предложения со слов and , but или also ; в разговорном языке вы можете их использовать, но избегайте этого в формальном сочинении;

• не употребляйте вводные слова, характерные для неформального стиля (well, you know и т. д.);

• избегайте слишком простых предложений; объединяйте их в сложные, используя логические средства связи.

> Разделите текст сочинения на смысловые абзацы в соответствии с предложенным в задании планом.

1. В первом абзаце сформулируйте проблему, которую вы будете обсуждать, однако не повторяйте тему сочинения слово в слово. Представьте, что ваш читатель не знает, о чем пойдет речь, и попытайтесь объяснить ему проблему другими словами.

2. Выделите положительные и отрицательные аспекты проблемы, подумайте о разумных аргументах в поддержку обеих точек зрения. Помните, что вы должны выразить не только свою точку зрения, но и мнение ваших потенциальных оппонентов. Постарайтесь соблюсти баланс между абзацами.

3. Используйте слова-связки, чтобы помочь читателю проследить за логикой ваших рассуждений. Помните, что вводные слова выделяются запятыми.

4. В заключительном параграфе сделайте обобщающий вывод по проблеме, которую вы обсуждали. Это покажет, что вы рассматриваете свое сочинение как единое целое. Вы можете также окончательно сформулировать свое мнение или предложить пути решения данной проблемы.

> Убедитесь, что объем сочинения составляет 200–250 слов.

> Еще раз перечитайте свое сочинение: проверьте грамматику, орфографию и пунктуацию.

Полезные слова и фразы, которые можно использовать в сочинении

Выражение мнения:

• Iagree/ disagree…

• In my opinion, … / From my point of view, … / As far as I’m concerned, …

• I believe that… / It seems to me that…

• I am in favour of… / I am against the idea of…

• According to …

• Some people say that …

• It is said/believed that …

• There is no doubt that …

• It cannot be denied that …

• It goes without saying that ….

• We must admit that …

Представление аргументов:

• The main argument in favour/against is…

• First of all, I would like to consider…

• The first thing (I would like to consider) to be considered is…

• To begin with,…/To start with, …

• Apart from that…

• Despite the fact that …/ In spite of the fact that …

• On the one hand, …/On the other hand, …

• Besides, …/ In addition, …

• What is more,… /Moreover, …/More than that, …

• What matters most in this case is…

• Finally, …

• However, … / …, though

• …although… / … even though …

• Nevertheless, …

Выражение причинно-следственной связи:

• for this reason

• therefore/that is why

• thus

sth happened

• because of

• as a result of

• owing to/due to

• as a consequence of

Примеры:

• for example

• for instance

• such as

• like

Заключение:

• To sum up, ….

• To conclude, I would argue that …

• On this basis, I can conclude that…

• In conclusion, I would like to stress that…

• All in all, I believe that…

 

3.2. Схема оценицания высказывания с элементами рассуждения

Письменное высказывание с элементами рассуждения оценивается по пяти критериям:

• содержание и полнота выполнения задания (максимально 3 балла);

• организация текста (максимально 3 балла);

• лексическое оформление речи (максимально 3 балла);

• грамматическое оформление речи (максимально 3 балла);

• орфография и пунктуация (максимально 2 балла). Таким образом, за сочинение с элементами рассуждения

учащийся может получить максимально 14 баллов.

Под содержанием и полнотой выполнения задания понимается:

• соответствие теме и ситуации общения, указанной в коммуникативном задании, а также полнота раскрытия темы;

• правильность отбора материала с учетом адресата (что адресат уже знает; о чем его нужно поставить в известность; какая информация не является важной и необходимой в данной ситуации);

• использование определенного стиля речи в соответствии с указанной коммуникативной ситуацией;

• соответствие высказывания заданному объему.

Под организацией текста понимается:

• логичность изложения материала;

• связность текста, которая обеспечивается правильным использованием языковых средств передачи логической связи между отдельными его частями (союзы, вводные слова, местоимения и т. п.);

• структурирование текста: деление на абзацы, наличие вступления и заключения.

При оценивании лексической грамотности учитываются:

• точность выбора слов и выражений; их соответствие теме и ситуации общения;

• правильность формирования лексических словосочетаний;

• грамотность словообразования;

• запас слов и разнообразие используемой лексики (синонимы, антонимы, фразеологизмы); их соответствие высокому уровню (B2).

При оценивании грамматической правильности речи учитываются:

• точность выбора грамматических конструкций в соответствии с целью высказывания;

• разнообразие используемых грамматических средств;

• сложность используемых конструкций.

При оценивании правильности орфографии и пунктуации учитываются:

• соблюдение норм орфографии иностранного языка;

• правильное оформление начала и конца предложений (заглавная буква, точка, вопросительный знак).

Критерии оценивания письменного высказывания с элементами рассуждения

 

3.3. Задания на составление высказывания с элементами рассуждения

COUNTRY AND CITY

Task 1. Comment on the following statement.

Some people enjoy living in big cities but others find such a lifestyle really harmful.

What can you say for and against living in a big city? Which way of life do you find more satisfying?

Write 200–250 words.

Use the following plan:

– make an introduction (state the problem)

– give arguments “for”

– give arguments “against”

– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

COMMUNICATION

Task 2. Comment on the following statement. Mobile telephones have become very popular nowadays. However, some people say that their use should be restricted. What can you say for and against using a mobile telephone? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given argumentsEDUCATION Task 3. Comment on the following statement. Most teachers believe that all subjects at school are equally useful. What is your opinion? Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 4. Comment on the following statement. Online education is a growing industry, but is it a blessing or a curse? What can you say for and against distant learning? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 5. Comment on the following statement. The future of education – books or computers? What is your opinion? Are computers going to replace printed books in the future? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 6. Comment on the following statement. Education is compulsory, school is not. What can you say for and against home education? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 7. Comment on the following statement. Many parents encourage their children to study well by giving extra pocket money for each good mark. What can you say for and against this practice? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 8. Comment on the following statement. Exams are a fair way of testing students. What can you say for and against taking exams? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 9. Comment on the following statement. Lots of young people choose to continue their education after finishing school. However, a number of school-leavers would rather find a job and start working. What can you say for and against further education? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given argumentsENVIRONMENT

Task 10. Comment on the following statement. Is it fair to keep animals in zoos? What is your opinion? Do you think that people should keep animals in zoos? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 11. Comment on the following statement. Some people think that cars should be banned from the centres of big cities. What is your opinion? Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionFAMILY AND FAMILY RELATIONS

Task 12. Comment on the following statement. Some families have an only child; others choose to have two, three or even more children. What can you say for and against being an only child in the family? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given argumentsFOOD

Task 13. Comment on the following statement. Fast food is very popular among teenagers. However, many experts consider fast food harmful to our health. What can you say for and against fast food? What kind of food do you prefer? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 14. Comment on the following statement. Many people believe that the only way to lose weight is following a special diet. However, doctors consider dieting harmful to our health. What can you say for and against following a diet? Which way of keeping fit do you prefer? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 15. Comment on the following statement. Genetically modified foods have caused an enormous amount of debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. As well as benefits, a variety of ecological and human health concerns come with the new advances made possible by genetic modification. What can you say for and against the development of genetically modified food? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given argumentsHEALTH

Task 16. Comment on the following statement. It is believed that young people today are not as healthy as they were fifty years ago. What is your opinion? Do you agree or disagree? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 17. Comment on the following statement. Should people be responsible for their own health care and have private health insurance? What is your opinion? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionHOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS Task 18. Comment on the following statement. Lots of people enjoy celebrating holidays. However, for some people a holiday is just a day off. What is your attitude to celebrations? Which way of spending holidays do you find more enjoyable? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionLAW Task 19. Comment on the following statement. Some people are sure that sending to prison is the only way to punish criminals. However, a lot of people believe there are far more effective punishments for criminals than prison. What is your opinion? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 20. Comment on the following statement. The death penalty is an appropriate punishment for murderers. What can you say for and against capital punishment? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given argumentsLEARNING LANGUAGES

Task 21. Comment on the following statement. Nowadays in some schools pupils study two or even three foreign languages. What can you say for and against it? Would you like to learn several foreign languages? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 22. Comment on the following statement. Lots of people would like to have one language on our planet. However, scientists think that having only one language is a disaster. What is your opinion? Do you think that language diversity is important for our society? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 23. Comment on the following statement. The best way to learn a foreign language is to speak with native speakers. Do you agree? What do you think is the best way of studying a language? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionLEISURE ACTIVITIES Task 24. Comment on the following statement. Computer games teach us nothing and young people should avoid them. What is your opinion? Do you agree or disagree? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionMASS MEDIA Task 25. Comment on the following statement. Advertising is common throughout the world. However, not all people consider it helpful. What can you say for and against advertising? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given argumentsMONEY AND SUCCESS Task 26. Comment on the following statement. Only people who earn a lot of money are successful. What is your opinion? Do you agree or disagree? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 27. Comment on the following statement. Some teenagers dream of becoming rich whereas others consider it to be rather dangerous. What is your opinion? Would you like to be a millionaire? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionSCIENCE AND CULTURE Task 28. Comment on the following statement. Some people believe governments spend too much money on space research while there are still a lot of problems on Earth. What can you say for and against space exploration? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 29. Comment on the following statement. Today some scientists claim that cloning experiments should not be subject to government scrutiny. What is your opinion? Should governments oversee human cloning research? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 30. Comment on the following statement. Some people think that graffiti is another form of expressing art; others think that graffiti is vandalism. What can you say for and against graffiti? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 31. Comment on the following statement. Some people think that science plays the most important role in the development of our civilisation; others believe that our world would be impossible without poetry. What is your opinion? Which is more important in our lives, science or poetry? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionSPORTS Task 32. Comment on the following statement. Lots of people enjoy different sports. However, there are people who think that sport is not really useful. What can you say for and against doing sports? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 33. Comment on the following statement. Extreme sports have taken off in a big way over the last twenty years. However, quite a few people object to these dangerous sports, highlighting the risk of accident. What is your opinion? Do you understand people who are fond of extreme sports? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionTELEVISION

Task 34. Comment on the following statement. Some people enjoy watching reality shows. However, others consider them a complete waste of time. What can you say for and against reality TV? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 35. Comment on the following statement. Many people watch soap operas because they find them enjoyable and realistic. What is your opinion of soap operas? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 36. Comment on the following statement. Television is considered to have great educational power. However, some people think that watching TV is a waste of time. What can you say for and against television? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 37. Comment on the following statement. A lot of parents believe that their children watch too much TV. Do you agree or disagree? What is your opinion? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 38. Comment on the following statement. Violence on TV and crime in society are clearly related. Do you agree? Do you think that violence on TV should be forbidden? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionTECHNOLOGY

Task 39. Comment on the following statement. The Internet is without doubt one of the most important inventions in history. But is it really as good as it seems to be? What can you say for and against the Internet? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 40. Comment on the following statement. Lots of people believe that the invention of the car changed the world. However, some people think that our world would be better without cars. Do you agree or disagree? What is your opinion? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionTOMORROW’S WORLD Task 41. Comment on the following statement. There are more good things than bad things about our future. What is your opinion? Are you optimistic or pessimistic about the future? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionTRAVEL AND TOURISM Task 42. Comment on the following statement. In recent years tourism has really taken off. However, many people think that tourism ruins everything that it touches. What can you say for and against tourism? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 43. Comment on the following statement. Travel broadens the mind. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given argumentsWORK Task 44. Comment on the following statement. Should teenagers work part-time to earn money? What is your opinion? Would you like to work part-time? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 45. Comment on the following statement. Not all people enjoy a 9-to-5 working day in an office. What is your opinion? What can you say for and against working from home? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 46. Comment on the following statement. Some teenagers would like to have a highly paid job; others believe that their future job should be interesting and bring satisfaction. And what about you? What is the most important thing for you in your future occupation? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusionYOUNG PEOPLE IN MODERN SOCIETY

Task 47. Comment on the following statement. Some people believe that modern teenagers are really awful. However, most teenagers think that they are criticised for no reason. What is your opinion? Do you agree that teens are really so bad? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 48. Comment on the following statement. Our grandparents say their way of life was much more secure. However, young people have many more life opportunities nowadays. What is your opinion? Which way of life do you find more satisfying? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

Task 49. Comment on the following statement. Most school children are against wearing a school uniform but their teachers disagree. What can you say for and against school uniforms? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– give arguments “for”– give arguments “against”– draw a conclusion based on the given arguments

Task 50. Comment on the following statement. Lots of teens believe that it’s important to look nice. However, adults often think that young people pay too much attention to their appearance and fashion. What is your opinion? Do you care what you wear? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:– make an introduction (state the problem)– express your personal opinion and give reasons for it– give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it– draw a conclusion

 

3.4. Варианты сочинений с элементами рассуждения

Task 1.

Nowadays lots of young people tend to move to cities in search of better life. On the contrary, many adults consider such a lifestyle quite dangerous for their children. Who is right? Is the life in the city really as harmful as it may seem?

On the one hand, city life has lots of advantages. For example, it is often easier to get prestigious education and to find a well-82

paid job. Besides, there is a wider choice of shops, sports facilities and health centres. What is more, if you live in the city, you can eat in good restaurants, visit museums, and go to theatres or concerts. All in all, city lifestyle is full of variety so you will never feel bored.

On the other hand, we must admit that city life is rather unsafe as there is a lot of crime and violence. What is more, transport and industry are the main reasons for all kinds of pollution therefore city dwellers often have more problems with their health. Last of all, young people living in cities are likely to acquire such bad habits as smoking, drinking alcohol or even taking drugs.

In conclusion, I think that city life has its pros and cons. However, if we try and solve the problems of crime and pollution, then living in the city will be really enjoyable. As for me, I would prefer to live in the city because I am keen on visiting theatres and don’t mind noise and pollution.

Task 2. There are lots of different ways of communication nowadays such as letters and telegrams, telephones and the Internet, but perhaps the most popular one is a mobile phone. While young people cannot imagine their lives without mobiles, adults are getting more and more worried about the consequences of their use.On the one hand, we use mobile phones because they are very convenient. First of all, they are small enough to fit into our pockets so we can easily take them everywhere and always stay in touch. Besides, they allow us not only to phone, but to send small messages, which is very cheap. What is more, with new multimedia mobiles, we can log on to the Internet, pay for things, play games, interact with TV programmes and take photos to send to friends.On the other hand, some people believe that radiation from mobiles influences our health and can even lead to cancer. Besides, psychologists say teenagers are becoming addicted to mobiles. Surveys show that teenagers are reading less and mobile use is affecting the marks of secondary school students. What is more, some students can use mobile phones to cheat on tests, which of course is not honest.To sum up, I want to say that virtually every technology has its pros and cons. I believe we should not reject mobile phones for the bad effect they have. On the contrary, we must learn how to make the best use of them.

Task 3. People have various preferences so it is natural that school students want to study the subjects they are interested in. Yet many teachers are against this, arguing that students must learn all subjects equally.In my opinion, students should be allowed to choose the subjects they want to study because in this case they will probably be more enthusiastic about their school work. In addition, if students are forced to study all subjects obligatorily, they can easily lose interest in education. What is more, if all subjects are compulsory for studying, students will not have enough time to learn all of them properly therefore they will be constantly under a lot of pressure.On the other hand, most teachers believe their subject is of great importance and they will not let it be optional. Moreover, teachers claim that students must be well rounded so they need to study all subjects equally. I am afraid, however, that when we learn a variety of subjects, we get very poor knowledge and we are not able to get an idea of what our interests are. Besides, some subjects can be of no use for us in the future and we will forget everything we learned at school.In conclusion, I strongly believe that being free to choose what to study is an effective form of education. Nevertheless, I must admit that we should not completely reject all the other subjects. Instead, teachers must find an easier form of teaching them.

Task 4. Due to recent technological advances a growing number of people give up the classroom environment and choose to study online. Moreover, some people claim that distant learning will completely substitute traditional ways of education in the not too remote future. But is online education really so effective?At first glance, online learning provides an easier and more comfortable way of obtaining education because there is no need to attend classes and to spend a lot of time getting to and from school. In addition, students have greater flexibility in their schedule and can work at their own pace, taking time when they need it and speeding through courses that are easy. What is more, when students study online, they can specialize in courses they are most interested in. Students take responsibility for their education and become self-motivated and self-reliant.However, online education lacks interactive classroom setting, which promotes the open exchange of ideas and makes it easier to master the subject. Besides, certain subjects like Maths or Physics may be hard to learn without a direct help of a teacher not to mention difficulties connected with the use of computer equipment. Moreover, most online programmes don’t have the fun of traditional school and isolate students from each other, which has a bad influence on their character.In conclusion, I can say that the real effectiveness of online education has not been evaluated yet. I believe that the best teaching method will be a combination of online and classroom learning.

Task 5. The latest advances in information technology make people think that schools of the future will use computers instead of printed books. Although electronic books have not been widely accepted yet, they have certain advantages over traditional paper volumes. But will they be able to replace printed books?In my opinion, students will be widely using computers for studying in the future. To begin with, computers can store lots of books in their memory and modern software allows us to find quickly the necessary information. Besides, with the interactive programmes on computers studying will be much more exciting. What is more, electronic books will not degrade overtime like their printed counterparts.On the other hand, lots of disbelievers argue that computers will not replace printed books because a printed book is better for human eyes than a computer screen. In addition, books are cheaper and easier to use since they do not need electricity or the Internet connection. I cannot agree with this because modern computer screens emit no radiation and allow us to read even in low light conditions. Of course we will have to pay for electricity but I think it will be cheaper than to pay for printed books, which are very expensive nowadays.To sum up, I think computers and printed books will peacefully coexist for years to come, but in the future technological progress will make it possible for students to carry laptops or even palmtops instead of traditional bags with lots of heavy books.

Task 6. In most countries children can be educated at home by their parents and home schooling is becoming more and more popular. However, this way of education has both advantages and disadvantages.On the one hand, home education is ideal for children who suffer from ‘school phobia’ or do not fit in with the school environment. They are unhappy and often play truant. On the contrary, when children are educated at home, they study in an atmosphere of love and understanding. Moreover, this way of education will perfectly suit gifted pupils, who are bored by the traditional school lessons. In this case, parents can make studying more fascinating by choosing an individual curriculum. Finally, home educated children have more flexible schedule and can study at their own pace.On the other hand, parents are usually not qualified enough to teach their children therefore they may not receive an appropriate level of education. What is more, home education is very challenging for students as they have to work harder without a direct help of a qualified teacher. In addition, children lack the opportunity to exchange ideas with their peers, which restricts their intellectual development. They may also miss their friends as they meet only in the evenings.To conclude, I think although the idea of home education is becoming more popular, it might not suit every child and every parent. As for me, I would rather choose school education because it makes me more organised and provides profound knowledge in all subjects.

Task 7. Many parents see pocket money as a way of encouraging their children to do well at school. It cannot be denied that money oils the wheels of the world. But can pocket money really improve school performance?On the one hand, getting pocket money for good school grades teaches pupils that money does not grow on trees and develops a sense of how much has to be done to earn it. Besides, children become more interested in good results at school and try to study better. What is more, for many students studying is really hard work so they consider it fair to be rewarded for their efforts just like adults.On the other hand, it is normal to expect pupils to do their homework properly because it is their duty as are household chores. Another argument against this practice is that children get upset when they do badly at school not because of their poor knowledge but because the will get no money. Finally, getting pocket money may become their main target and students may start cheating so as to get good grades.To sum up, I think that this practice has more bad than good sides. That is why I strongly believe that parents should not give their children any money in order to encourage them to study better. Pupils should be ready to learn for learning’s sake. Of course they may be rewarded but for extra work, not for their duties.

Task 8. Every year thousands of students take important exams which can decide their future. For example, students have to pass exams with excellent grades in order to get a place in a university. However, are exams the ultimate solution to judge one’s knowledge?On the one hand, exams seem fair because the questions are the same for all students. Besides, the exams are marked according to a strict scheme and usually by more than one examiner. Furthermore, students do exams at the same time and under the same conditions. If the examination procedure is strict, students have no opportunity to cheat, that is why the results of exams are quite objective.On the other hand, exams do not truly reflect the knowledge students hold. Despite some students deserving to pass, they might be so nervous on the big day that they make a mess of the exam. In addition, there may be other reasons, such as illness, which affect a student’s performance in an exam. Moreover, exams do not judge your intelligence. What is really evaluated is your self-confidence and your short term memory.To sum up, exams are not the ideal way of testing students therefore the idea of assessing students’ work over a longer period is becoming more popular. In my opinion, the best system would be a mixture of exams and course work, in which students will be able to show their creative abilities.

Task 9. Many roads are open before school-leavers therefore it is not easy for them to make the right choice. Some students believe that it is necessary to get higher education whereas others prefer to earn money.On the one hand, it is better to continue our education and get the necessary knowledge for our future profession. At universities we learn how to learn so that we can make use of this ability in other more practical areas later on in life. Besides, if we have good qualifications, we will be able to find a highly paid job because every company needs well-qualified employees. Moreover, while studying at university, we can make lots of new friends and university life is usually interesting and exciting.However, many students take a gap year after school and start working in order to find out what their interests are and choose their future career. Besides, they can get the necessary experience and it will be a useful introduction to the world of business. Many people nowadays follow the traditional ‘start at the bottom and work your way up’ approach. What is more, they will earn money and become independent of their parents.In conclusion, I want to say that the final choice depends on the person’s attitude to education. Personally, I think that further education is very important and it is easier to study when you are young. So after finishing school I am going to enter a college or university and to continue my education.

Task 10. There are a lot of zoos in the world and millions of people visit them every year. But are zoos harmful or helpful to animals which are caged there?I strongly believe that we should not keep animals in zoos because captivity is not natural for them and it is a constant stress to a wild animal. Keeping animals in zoos harms them by denying them freedom of movement and association. What is more, zoos are like prisons for animals as they live in small cages and do not get necessary food. In addition, animals become very aggressive and unpredictable as they get older and often attack zoo keepers and other people.However, most people think that zoos help endangered species survive. But this is not true because most rare animals are extremely difficult to breed in captivity. Besides, in zoos, it is almost impossible to meet the animals’ natural needs. Another argument for keeping animals in zoos is that people learn something new about these animals. Actually, zoos do not teach us much because animals do not act the way they would in the wild. I think we can learn more about animals by watching wildlife programmes on TV.In conclusion, I would argue that zoos do not seem to help endangered species and keeping animals behind bars only for the sake of our entertainment is not quite fair. In my opinion, people must create nature reserves, where wild animals will be able to live in their natural environment.

Task 11. There is no doubt that the invention of the car changed the world and nowadays we can hardly find a family without a car. Nevertheless, some people are against cars, especially in the centres of big cities.In my opinion, cars should not be allowed into the city centres as they add to pollution and poison the air we breathe. We must also think about the people who live in the centre and suffer from the noise made by cars. Moreover, the streets in the centre are usually narrow therefore people are often stuck in traffic for many hours and, as a result, arrive late at their destination. Finally, with no cars in city centres, there would be no need for large ugly car parks, which would allow more space for parks.However, many people believe we would not be able to survive without cars because most of the products for shops and other businesses are transported by cars. Besides, they are afraid that public transport would be overloaded. I am sure it is possible to solve these problems by introducing a reliable high frequency tram service as well as developing the underground. As for goods, we could use electric vehicles for their delivery.To sum up, I believe that a clean, reliable and environmentally friendly public service would encourage people to use public transport and help smooth the transition to a car-free zone.

Task 12. One-child households have doubled over the last two decades making it one of the fastest growing family units in most European countries. But is it really beneficial to be an only child in a family?On the one hand, if you are an only child, you don’t have to share your room with anybody else. As a result, these children may have friends to stay over on a regular basis. Besides, they have more privacy and no one disturbs them while they are studying. What is more, parents give all their love and care to their only child. Such children also benefit from having the family financial resources focused upon them.On the other hand, if you have a sibling, you have someone to play with or to talk to, and you’ll never feel bored or lonely. And if you get into trouble, you have someone to give you a helping hand or at least some advice. Moreover, children in large families are usually not overindulged by their parents. Kids learn at the very early age that the world doesn’t revolve around them and that they have to share their possessions or wait for their turn.In conclusion, I want to say that one-child families have their pros and cons. Personally, I believe that having a brother or a sister is an amazing feeling, because no matter what happens in life, you will not be lonely and you will always have someone to share your thoughts and feelings.

Task 13. Fast food restaurants are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, especially among teenagers. But have you ever stopped to think how fast food affects your health?On the one hand, fast food is very convenient, because you do not have to wait for a long time until your food is prepared. It is especially useful for people who do not like to cook. In addition, fast food is rather inexpensive, which is very important for teenagers who usually do not have much pocket money. What is more, there are a lot of fast food restaurants such as McDonalds all over the world so you may be sure that you will have good quality meal in almost every country.On the other hand, this kind of food is not nutritious because it is high in fat, which is believed to be one of the major causes of obesity and heart disease. Besides, it is loaded with calories because fries, burgers, nuggets and other items you can find at fast food establishments are usually three times larger than the amount you should be consuming. Moreover, fast food may be addictive as the high levels of salt and sugar content found in most fast food items cause the brain to seek them out.As for me, I think that fast food is rather harmful to our health so I prefer home-made meals. In conclusion, I want to say that everybody should make their own choices whether to eat junk food or healthy food.

Task 14. Nowadays many people think they are too fat even if their doctors disagree. They think the best way to improve their fitness is following a diet. But is dieting really so effective and healthy?On the one hand, if you want to lose weight it is very important to keep your eye on what you eat. To begin with, you should cut out snacks and desserts, which add weight without boosting energy levels. Besides, you ought to cut down on fat as it is believed to be one of the major causes of obesity. Finally, you may count the number of calories you eat every day, which may substantially reduce the amount of food you eat and help to lose weight.On the other hand, strict dieting may be dangerous. Firstly, the lower the calories eaten per day, the harder it is to get the daily requirements of proteins and vitamins. In addition, excessive dieting causes muscle loss and this loss may be from your heart with severe consequences. Moreover, dieting lowers your metabolic rate, so when you return to your normal food intake, you will put on weight even faster than before.To conclude, I believe that to stay healthy everybody should follow a sensible, well-balanced diet that gives their body exactly what it needs. However, I think the best way of keeping fit is doing sports. If you do regular exercise, you can eat and drink whatever you want because you are burning it all off.

Task 15. Genetically modified crops have made a big splash in the news lately. For example, in Honduras farmers are encouraged to produce genetically modified (GM) crops although many people dispute about harmful effects of genetic technologies.On the one hand, genetic technology is one of the best solutions to the problem of world hunger. GM crops are faster and cheaper to grow therefore it will be possible to increase production and lower the cost of food. Besides, these crops could be grown in areas suffering from drought and salt. More than that, many people rely on genetically modified foods for medicines, for example insulin for diabetics.On the other hand, there is a possibility that introducing a gene into a plant may have an unexpected and negative impact on human health, for instance, it may create a new allergen and cause an allergic reaction in susceptible individuals. In addition, since some crops are modified using the DNA from viruses and bacteria, we may encounter new diseases. Moreover, GM crops may also pose a health risk to animals that eat them as they may be poisoned by built-in pesticides.In conclusion, I would like to say that many people feel that genetic engineering is the inevitable wave of the future and that we cannot afford to ignore a technology that has such enormous potential benefits. However, we must proceed with caution to avoid causing unintended harm to human health and the environment as a result of our enthusiasm for this powerful technology.

Task 16. We often hear a statement that the health of modern teenagers is much worse than that of their counterparts who lived fifty years ago. But is it really so?In my opinion, nowadays young people are not as healthy as they used to be. To begin with, young people today eat lots of genetically modified and junk food, which is definitely harmful. Besides, modern teenagers often smoke, drink alcohol and take drugs, which leads to serious diseases. What is more, lots of teenagers are addicted to computers or watch TV all day long instead of walking and doing sports. As a result, many young people are overweight and suffer from heart diseases.However, many people ignore these facts claiming that teenagers’ health is steadily improving due to modern health care and better nutrition. Of course, young people do not die today of such diseases as pneumonia and tuberculosis but their health is definitely getting worse because they breathe polluted air, drink polluted water and eat food with different harmful additives. Additionally, teenagers usually ignore their parents’ advice to eat healthy food and eat what they want or even skip meals. What is more, we must admit that today we are threatened by such incurable diseases as AIDS or hepatitis.In conclusion, I want to say that our society should pay more attention to the health of younger generation because they are the basis of our future development. I strongly believe that teenagers should be actively involved in various health projects.

Task 17. In the USSR almost all medical care was guaranteed by the state and was free of charge. Nowadays only a small part of it is covered by state insurance. In other cases people have to pay for their medical expenses or to buy private health insurance. Is it right?In my opinion, the government should have overall responsibility for people’s health. Firstly, those people who work pay enough taxes for the government to ensure sufficient health care for everybody and the authorities should provide money to keep medical service at a proper level. In addition, disabled people who do not work and have no money to pay for their treatment should not be underprivileged. Finally, medications are getting more and more expensive that is why not all people can afford to pay for the required medical care.However, there are people who think private health insurance will provide better health care than state insurance. I think the quality of health care does not depend on who pays for your expenses but depends on the development of medicine in the country. What is more, private insurance companies may go bankrupt and people will not get any medical help at all.In conclusion, I strongly believe that in a democratic society everybody should have the right to health insurance. Of course, people ought to be responsible for their health and avoid bad habits or do sports. But if they need medical help, the government must provide them with proper treatment and medications.

Task 18. Holidays are an essential part of our culture but not all people understand the importance of their celebrations. They consider any celebration as a waste of time. Are they right?To my mind, we should celebrate holidays because they help to keep up our traditions and to preserve our culture. I also think it is a good chance to bring the family together and to meet all your friends and relatives. What is more, there is a special atmosphere behind each holiday and it is a good opportunity to make people happy.Yet not all people enjoy celebrations. They are not interested in ancient traditions and think that holidays are just an excuse for spending money or making it. I do not think they are right because it is very important that traditions do survive in the country as they help to define who people are. Of course people spend lots of money on presents. However, it is not only the present that counts, but also the fact that people greet each other and share the joy of the day.Personally, I enjoy celebrations. For me, a holiday is not just a day off but a special occasion and I usually prepare for it beforehand. I like the spirit of a holiday and always try and keep the traditions connected with it. To conclude, I want to say that holidays are a very important part of our lives because they help to bring generations together.

Task 19. There is a lot of violence in the modern world. Although prisons keep us safe from dangerous criminals, they do not completely solve the problem of crime.In my opinion, people should find more effective punishments for criminals than prison because imprisonment in fact works adversely against crime. First of all, prisoners face horrible conditions such as inadequate medical care or abuse by guards, which, coupled with an environment of criminal peers, often make prisoners more violent than when they went in. In addition, some criminals learn in prison how to commit worse crimes. What is more, they are released with only a few roubles in their pockets and a perspective of being unemployed. As a result, most ex-prisoners commit a crime again.Yet some people consider prisons to be the most effective punishment for criminals. They also believe that prisons protect people from those who might harm us. Although murderers and other violent criminals deserve being sent to prison, a vast majority of prisoners are locked up for non-violent crimes such as low level property crimes. In this case they only need help finding jobs. Moreover, some people who commit crimes are mentally ill and doctors can help them much more than prisons.In conclusion, I believe that prisons are necessary for criminals who are a real danger to society. It may be better if less dangerous criminals receive different punishments, such as community service or a fine. Rehabilitation programmes cost far less and are more effective than prisons.

Task 20. At one time capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe, but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. However, many people consider the death penalty to be the best punishment for murderers.There are several arguments in favour of capital punishment. First of all, the death penalty acts as a deterrent. In other words, people are afraid of committing crimes as long as the death penalty exists. Besides, the punishment should fit the crime therefore the appropriate punishment for murder is death. Finally, capital punishment is truly cost effective when compared with the cost of life imprisonment.On the other hand, killing a person is inhumane and society should show how much it values a life by never killing anybody, even murderers. A second argument against capital punishment is that sometimes innocent people are found guilty. If they are imprisoned, they can be released. This cannot happen if they have already been executed. What is more, criminals can have different reasons for murder so it is unjust to apply capital punishment to all murderers. To sum up, there are several good arguments both to support and oppose capital punishment. Although it seems reasonable to apply death penalty to the most violent criminals, we ought to do it with great caution. I personally believe that people should focus on the reasons of crimes rather than on their punishment.

Task 21. Most people understand that without knowledge of foreign languages it is difficult to survive in the modern world. Therefore they send their children to schools where they can study two or even three foreign languages. However, is it good to study several languages simultaneously?On the one hand, foreign languages are the main part of our culture so they help us to expand our outlook. We cannot broaden our minds if we see the world only from the perspective of our own culture. In addition, learning languages is a good exercise for the intellect. Moreover, if pupils know at least one foreign language, they learn new languages much faster.On the other hand, many pupils find it confusing to learn two or three languages at a time, especially languages that are similar, because children usually mix up lots of words. Besides, some languages are tricky enough to learn. For example, in English there are more exceptions than rules. In this case, children can be overloaded with homework. More than that, some pupils do not know their native language well and learning several foreign languages could prevent them from mastering their own language.In conclusion, I want to say that learning languages is extremely beneficial and I would like to know different foreign languages. However, I believe children should not learn too many languages at the same time so as not to get confused. They ought to get a solid base in one language before they start learning a new one.

 

Task 22. No doubt that learning languages takes up a lot of time. That is why some people think that it would be better to have only one language on our planet. But will it be really beneficial for mankind?In my opinion, the reduction of the number of languages is a disaster because it will totally destroy our great cultural heritage. With each loss of a language comes a loss of a culture, a loss of a way of life that deserves to be protected and treated as valuable. I also believe that leaving one language for communication will greatly reduce the linguistic diversity of our planet, which is the key to our survival. What is more, it will be rather difficult to choose which language to use and it may even lead to wars.Many people think that if we have only one language, communication will become easier and there will be no need to learn foreign languages. I cannot agree with them because knowledge of foreign languages makes a person educated and well rounded. You cannot broaden your mind if you see the world only from the perspective of your own culture. Besides, people are a lot more helpful if you speak their language.In conclusion, I would argue that we should try our best to preserve the linguistic diversity of our planet. I think that larger cultures should have a respect for minority languages, but first of all the younger generation must want to preserve their native language.

Task 23. Nowadays people spend lots of money in order to go to an English-speaking country to improve their language skills. But is it really the most effective way of learning a language?From my point of view, studying in a foreign country has certain drawbacks. Firstly, this way is very expensive as the tuition fee for overseas students is rather high. Besides, when you study abroad, you have to adapt to a very different way of life, which can be quite stressful. What is more, English teachers do not speak Russian so if you don’t know English well, you will not understand their explanation.It is often assumed that it is better to study a language abroad because you can always use it speaking with native speakers. However, I doubt that we will have lots of opportunities to speak abroad as we do not know many people there. It is also believed that Russian teachers are not as qualified as those in England. I totally disagree with this opinion because Russian teachers can compare two languages and explain grammar rules better.To sum up, I would argue that the best way to learn a language is to study it in your native country because you can always get the necessary help from your teachers. Moreover, today we have lots of opportunities to improve our skills such as communicating with English pen-friends over the Internet. I think that we should travel abroad so as to practise a language but not to study it.

Task 24. People have always had different hobbies but technological progress has caused the appearance of computers and computer games, which can keep a child occupied for hours. However, adults consider computer games a complete waste of time.As for me, I believe computer games are more than mindless entertainment. To begin with, computer games can teach people to achieve their aims as they regularly put obstacles and traps in the way of players which are necessary to overcome in order to progress through the rest of the game. Additionally, computer games can be a valuable source of accidental learning that can be applied to school, home, and social events. Moreover, teachers have also started to appreciate educational games as an opportunity to make their lessons more exciting.Nevertheless, quite a few people are against this activity as they find it rather addictive and harmful for children’s health. They argue that computer games make students neglect their school work. However, if we learn to control our computer use and play games for an hour just to relax after a hard day at school, this will not do us any harm. What is more, modern technology made it possible to eliminate the bad effect of computers on our eyes.To sum up, I believe that computer games have more advantages than drawbacks. They make us persistent, develop our logical reasoning and help us to escape from everyday problems. The thing is to find a right balance between virtual reality and everyday reality.

Task 25. These days we all are exposed to a continuous chain of advertising messages. Sometimes advertising may be entertaining and sometimes it may disgust us. But does it really do anything to us?Can advertising be a positive force in society, or does it deserve to be avoided?On the one hand, we cannot imagine our world without any advertising. It would be impossible to learn about new products, films or travel options. Besides, advertisements help people get the best value for their money as they have access to price information, availability of products, and improvements being made. On the other hand, clever and informative advertisements help companies sell their products and develop their business. Many TV companies also get most of their money from advertising.But it cannot be denied that advertising does have its drawbacks. Some advertisements show life unrealistically and give untrue information. In adverts all people seem to be happy consumers, all kids seem to be healthy and well off. But this is not true at all. In addition, adverts do not talk about products defects. What is more, advertising increases prices for consumers and put pressure on them making them buy things they don’t need. I also think that we should not advertise alcoholic drinks and cigarettes as these products are really harmful.In conclusion, I’d like to say advertising is very important in our society nowadays. We need advertising, but it needs to be done correctly. Otherwise it will mean annoying consumers and wasting money.

Task 26. Does one’s success depend on the amount of money a person earns? This question has always worried people and the answer to it is not simple.In my opinion, being rich does not necessarily mean that you are successful. First of all, if you only work for money, you will not get satisfaction from your job. What is more, while making your fortune, you may not have enough time for your family so you are bound to have problems in family relationship. Finally, lots of money can worsen your character because rich people are often greedy and arrogant so you are unlikely to have any true friends.Unfortunately, most people view success in terms of money. They believe money will bring happiness because they will be able to buy luxurious things, travel around the world and realise their dreams. However, there are a lot of millionaires with personal problems and they are often very unhappy. You can buy houses and cars but money will not help you to buy love, friendship and good health, which are the most valuable things in life. What is more, being wealthy is often a powerful predictor that people spend less time doing pleasurable things and therefore feel stressed.In conclusion, I would argue that being rich is not the only way of being successful in life. From my point of view, it is more important to have an interesting job, good friends and a happy family. Other people make you happy, not money!

Task 27. No doubt that everybody wants to earn as much as possible so as to be able to do whatever they want. However, a lot of young people are afraid of being rich. Why?As for me, I do not see any drawbacks in being rich. On the contrary, with lots of money you can get a prestigious education, travel around the world and support your family. Besides, if you have a large income, people think you are very successful and respect you more. Finally, being rich means you can help poor people. For instance, if I had a lot of money, I would give some to cancer research or donate to charities.Many teenagers are afraid of becoming rich because they think someone will rob or even kill them. Moreover, they consider rich people to be criminals who have made a fortune by committing crimes. However, this is not true at all. There are many millionaires who are absolutely honest, for example, Bill Gates. He has taken a tiny software company and turned it into a multi-billion dollar powerhouse. Now Bill Gates is one of the wealthiest people on the planet and yet he is a noted philanthropist who has donated a lot of money to non-profit educational organizations.In conclusion, I want to say that money is power, and having money means having the power to make positive changes. Personally, I would like to be a millionaire so as to be able to help people who are in need.

Task 28. Space exploration can mean a major leap for mankind. However, it is often criticized because the price for these space experiments is too high, especially while poverty still exists in many parts of the world.On the one hand, space research is extremely beneficial as it advances technology. As a result of this work, we have lots of inventions, which have made our lives much more comfortable. In addition, through the exploration of space, we could find new elements, minerals or even discover new laws of physics and eventually learn more about ourselves. What is more, space exploration will allow us to establish a human civilization on another planet as a hedge against the catastrophe that might occur on the Earth.On the other hand, the benefits of space exploration are not self-evident, no matter how real they are. It costs billions of dollars to fund the projects of space science whereas this money should rather be spent on meeting the needs of the underprivileged. Besides, some of the technology we develop through space science can be used in a destructive manner if it is in the wrong hands. Finally, a travel to space can be dangerous as we may discover something that is extremely harmful for the living beings on Earth.To conclude, I want to say that space exploration satisfies the human desire for adventure therefore most people are interested in space research. Nevertheless, I believe our governments should find the right balance between social and space programmes.

Task 29. Recent advances in genetic biology have led us to quite a doubtful situation. People all over the world argue whether human cloning research should be controlled by the government as solving problems connected with human cloning is definitely not a piece of cake.In my opinion, human cloning experiments are extremely dangerous because there are huge risks of abnormalities in human clones. Moreover, if clones have been made, they will obviously have serious psychological problems connected with their unusual birth. Finally, there is no doubt that human cloning will change our perception of what is the value of a human life as we might change from having children to manufacturing them.However, scientists claim that human cloning could be very beneficial as therapeutic cloning could provide stem cells for regenerative medicine and tissues for transplantation. Besides, reproductive cloning will probably give parents who are both infertile an opportunity to have children. I am afraid that this technology is not safe enough to use on humans. It is also possible that clones will age quicker since the cell used in the cloning procedure has already been used in a real life individual.To sum up, we must question whether human cloning is really worth it when weighed against the problems it raises. From my point of view, human reproductive cloning should be under the tight control of the government and the UN because it is dangerous to interfere with nature and the consequences can be really disastrous.

Task 30. Art has lots of different forms. However, its evaluation has become especially problematic since the twentieth century when controversial art forms such as graffiti became popular. Although graffiti is often regarded as a new form of art worthy of display in galleries, its value is still highly contested.On the one hand, works produced by graffiti artists demonstrate a broad spectrum of personal and cultural expression therefore it is the way for people to express their talent. In addition, graffiti like any other art work takes vision, planning as well as lots of efforts. What is more, in many ways viewing graffiti art is very much like viewing contemporary art in a gallery and it is appreciated by many people.On the other hand, graffiti is often seen as vandalism because instead of canvas graffiti artists choose train cars, bridges or public walls, which makes our cities look really ugly and run-down. Moreover, most of the graffiti you see on walls is a collection of swear words, gang names or just silly drawings. For many people graffiti is often associated with crime and violence.To sum up, graffiti can be called an art form as long as artists get permission from those whose property might be used as can-102vas. In my opinion, people paint on public things because they have nowhere else to express their talent. I strongly believe city authorities should create special places for graffiti artists where all people will be able to appreciate this wonderful art form.

Task 31. People often argue about the role of science and poetry in the development of our civilization. This question seems rather controversial as both of them contributed to our society and without them mankind seems impossible to exist.As for me, I consider science to be of higher priority as it helps to make our lives more comfortable. Most of the things we use nowadays are the results of scientific research. What is more, due to the improvements in medical science many of incurable diseases can now be cured and people live longer. However, the importance of science does not only derive from its use in technology or medicine. It is a vital tool in expanding our knowledge about the world and, consequently, about ourselves. Without science we are unable to reveal our past and to predict our future.On the contrary, some people argue that poetry is more important as it helps to tell good from evil and teaches us to be sympathetic and honest. They doubt the necessity of science blaming it for the appearance of chemical weapons and nuclear bombs. In my opinion, without mistakes, no development is possible, and the humanity has learned quite a lot from this sad experience. I am sure that science can be as rich a teacher as poetry although it differs in technique.To sum up, I believe that science has been more beneficial to mankind. Nevertheless, we should not underestimate the importance of poetry as it advances our understanding of beauty.

Task 32. Sport is one of those things that make our lives really worth living. In one way or another, everyone is involved in sports, whether they play or watch it, or just know someone who does either. Although a lot of people seem to be interested in sports, not all of them consider it useful.On the one hand, we must admit that sport takes a lot of energy and time and it can be really exhausting. Sportsmen train all day long and have to follow a diet, which does more harm than good. Besides, some sports such as snowboarding or rock climbing can be rather dangerous. As a result, people often have serious injuries. Moreover, sport makes you unhappy when you lose, which can lead to psychological problems.On the other hand, sport helps us to keep fit and to stay healthy. Among the benefits of regular exercise are a healthier heart, weight control and less susceptibility to illnesses. In addition, sport helps us to overcome difficulties and gives a chance to acquire self-confidence. What is more, sport makes us more organised and better disciplined in our daily activities. It is also a good way to spend free time and to make friends.To sum up, I would argue that sport is very important for people’s health. However, it is not necessary to become a professional sportsman. If you go in for sports just for pleasure, to stay in good shape or to relax, then sport is definitely useful.

Task 33. There is no doubt that extreme sports are becoming more and more popular nowadays. Nevertheless, these sports are considered rather dangerous and it is quite difficult to understand why people put their lives at risk.As for me, I can understand people who are addicted to risky sports. First of all, they try extreme sports for the thrill and excitement. They just want a new experience and new emotions to conquer. For them extreme sport is an antidote to our safety-first, shrink-wrapped world. Besides, risky sports enable people to confront fears and to satisfy their curiosity. Finally, young people are likely to take risks because they want to look daring and outrageous.However, parents are often against extreme sports because of the possibility of injury. They are also afraid that young people will become addicted to taking risks. As a matter of fact, many extreme sports are even less dangerous than traditional ones. Improvements in equipment allow the reduction in risk and if you do not take things to the edge, extreme sports are rather safe. In addition, risky sports help people to relax and to find new friends who share the same passion. In my opinion, it is much better than drug addiction.To sum up, I strongly believe that extreme sports are as beneficial as traditional kinds. They offer the opportunity to carve your own path and find out where your limits lie. Personally, I am not a risk taker but I respect people who go to extremes.

Task 34. Reality shows have become an inalienable part of TV programmes. However, while lots of people admire them glued to their TV screens, there are more sceptical viewers who doubt the quality of these shows.On the one hand, reality TV is great fun and it is one of the best ways of entertainment, which helps people to unwind after a long day at school or at work. Another reason for its success is interactivity. Most people enjoy reality shows because they have an opportunity to participate so they feel in control of the participants’ destiny. Finally, we can watch how contestants react under pressure thus imagining how we would behave under the same circumstances. It can be really instructive.On the other hand, not all of these programmes are made in good taste. It seems like TV producers are running out of ideas because all of them are exactly the same. What is more, many of them are actually a fake because participants are made to rehearse their performance so we cannot trust them. Finally, people who win shows like X Factor or Pop Idol are not real celebrities because they become famous for a little while and then disappear.In conclusion, I can say that no matter whether we like reality TV or hate it, it is here to stay and it reflects our life. Personally, I think it is a good way to relax and a wonderful opportunity for people to boost their careers.

Task 35. Several years ago, nobody could have predicted that soap operas would have taken over most of TV prime time. Yet there are quite a few people who consider watching soaps a complete waste of time.As for me, I am not a die-hard fan analysing every episode but I certainly enjoy watching soaps. The prime reason is that they help me to release tension and to escape from the pressures of everyday life. Another thing that attracts me to soaps is the presence of suspense. They always keep me guessing about the characters and their fate and I want to know what is coming next and how it all ends up. Finally, watching soaps has become part of my daily routine and I always look forward to watching another episode.Admittedly, there are people who dislike soaps claiming that they have boring scripts and unbelievable story lines. I do not think it is correct to blame soaps for being unrealistic. On the contrary, the reality of the problems portrayed in soaps make them so recognisable to the viewer. I also disagree that all soaps are boring and predictable as people involved in watching them are usually captivated by their story lines.In conclusion, I want to stress that despite the criticisms we cannot escape from the fact that soap operas are one of the most popular genres on television. Whatever the reason for watching them, soaps possess an incredible magnetic attractiveness and power that must never be underestimated.

Task 36. A lot of people learn about the world from TV because it is the easiest way of getting information as well as an ideal way of relaxation. Despite this fact, some people believe that TV is not really worth watching.On the one hand, television helps people to expand their outlook as it reflects our world. It gives us an opportunity to travel around the world, to see different people and learn about their customs and traditions. Besides, watching TV is the best way to be in the know of everything. TV news and current affairs programmes keep you informed about your country and the rest of the world. Moreover, there are lots of educational channels such as Discovery or Animal Planet, which help people to broaden their mind.On the other hand, there are TV addicts who watch TV for hours without choosing programmes and spend time in front of television which they could spend studying. In this case, television makes them really waste time. In addition, there are a lot of commercials on TV, which are often misleading and unhelpful. More than that, not all TV shows are made in good taste and some of them are really boring.To sum up, television has both good and bad points and people should learn how to make the best use of it. If you watch TV for an hour a day to find out what is happening in the world or to relax, then television is really useful.

Task 37. Most kids plug into the world of television long before they enter school. No wonder that their parents are worried about the consequences of excessive TV viewing.In my opinion, nowadays children are too addicted to watching television. On average, kids spend several hours in front of a TV screen every day. As a result, TV can get in the way of studying, exploring, playing and interacting with parents and friends. In addition, excessive TV viewing can result in obesity as kids are inactive and tend to snack while watching TV. What is more, there is a lot of violence on television and TV characters often depict risky behaviours such as smoking or drinking, which can set a bad example for children.On the other hand, kids need entertainment and they consider TV one of the best ways of spending their free time. They also say that TV helps them to learn about the world. Although TV can be an excellent entertainer and educator, there are lots of active ways of entertainment such as playing games or doing sports, which are actually much healthier. Moreover, we should not forget about the educational value of reading a good book.To sum up, I agree that television, in moderation, can be a good thing. However, if children watch TV all day long without choosing programmes, then it is really harmful. That is why I believe parents should set viewing limits to ensure their kids do not spend too much time watching TV.

Task 38. Over the last fifty years we have seen a huge rise in TV violence and a corresponding rise in the crime rate. Many people are sure this is not coincidence and blame television for the negative influence.In my opinion, those who think that TV violence accounts for the rise of crime in society get the situation the wrong way round. Television just reflects the increase in violence and crime in society. Besides, crime programmes can actually stop people from breaking the law as they usually show that crime doesn’t pay. Moreover, programmes where real life crimes are re-enacted get people to ring in with information and eventually help to catch criminals.It is supposed that violence on TV has a negative influence on children as they become more aggressive after watching violent shows. There is also an opinion that young people tend to imitate crime techniques watched on TV and therefore are likely to be arrested for criminal acts as adults. However, lots of people watch violent crimes on TV without wanting to commit similar crimes themselves. That is why I believe that the main reason for committing crimes is poverty and bad education, not television programmes.To conclude, I do not think it is necessary to forbid all crime programmes because television should tell people the truth about the world they live in. I strongly believe we should concentrate on what people experience in their daily life before we worry about what is on TV.

Task 39. We live in the age of information technology and nowadays the Internet is nearly as common as the telephone. No doubt that it is a unique invention, which has influenced all areas of our lives. However, some people consider the Internet one of the greatest evils of our time.On the one hand, the Internet is very useful, because it lets us access a world of facts, figures and knowledge. In addition, with the Internet, it is now possible to speak to friends and relatives anywhere in the world cheaply and quickly. Other services are also available through the Internet such as booking tickets or buying things. Moreover, the Internet allows a lot of talented people to show the world their achievements and makes it easier to find a job.On the other hand, the Internet can become a disaster for our society, because people spend hours in front of their computers and neglect their everyday duties. Another worry is the activities of cybercriminals. For example, hackers can steal your money or even your property while cyberterrorists may ‘attack’ the world’s computers, causing chaos, and making planes and trains crash. What is more, leaders of different terrorist or oppositional organisations can use the Internet to find new followers.In conclusion, I strongly believe that despite the criticisms by some and the fears of others, the Internet seems to have changed our world to the better and we must try to make the best use of it.

Task 40. There is no doubt that the invention of the car completely changed the way people thought about travelling causing the development of many other means of transport. However, the drawbacks of cars make people think that we should stop using them.In my opinion, cars are necessary in today’s world. To begin with, they help us transport goods to places that cannot be reached by other means of transport. In addition, cars are the main way of transportation for people who live far from their workplaces, especially now when public transport is frequently lacking. It is even more difficult to use public transport if you have children with you or heavy goods to carry. Finally, cars are the best way of travelling because you need not buy tickets and you can stop wherever you like.Nevertheless, cars are often criticised because they cause air pollution. Another argument against using cars is that people are turning into legless creatures and inactivity leads to serious diseases. I cannot agree with these views because nowadays all cars are to be equipped with special control systems to reduce their exhaust fumes and new environmentally friendly cars are being developed. Moreover, with cars, people have better opportunities to reach sports facilities and therefore spend more time doing sports.To sum up, I would argue that although cars have certain disadvantages people would not be able to survive without them. However, I believe that we should improve cars to lower their harmful influence on people’s health.

Task 41. People have always been intrigued of what the future will look like. That is why there are a lot of futuristic books and films, both optimistic and pessimistic. But what does the real future holds for us? Will life in the future be better, worse or the same as now?As for me, I am optimistic about the future. We have already seen major technological advances over the last fifty years and the next fifty years are going to be equally exciting. For example, in fifty years’ time scientists will have created robots that will be doing all dangerous and difficult jobs. In addition, medicine technology will have conquered many diseases including AIDS and cancer. As for entertainment, I believe we will get it from the Internet and television will probably disappear.However, some people feel pessimistic about our future. They worry about the activity of terrorists and the possibility of nuclear wars. Another problem is our environment, which is in a sorry state. I am sure that people will be able control their weapons because everybody understands what disastrous consequences nuclear wars may have. We will also take care of our environment and in the future people will drive petrol-free cars, drink purified water and recycle their rubbish.To sum up, I believe that we will finally solve all our problems and will live happily. History shows that people can make the right choices. That’s a good reason to be optimistic about science and humanity.

Task 42. It goes without saying that tourism can bring economic gain to the development of all countries. Nevertheless, some people think that the price for this development is too high. So is tourism a blessing or a curse?On the one hand, tourism is extremely beneficial as it provides people with jobs and brings substantial profit for the country’s economy. In addition, most of the money from tourism is spent on schools, roads, cultural development and maintenance of architectural sights, which otherwise would be in a sorry state. What is more, travelling is a part of people’s education and it is a good way to broaden our minds. We may say that tourism brings cultures and people closer.On the other hand, we must admit that tourism does have some disadvantages. To begin with, most popular resorts are pol-110luted and litter has become a major problem. Besides, many ancient monuments are being destroyed by unstoppable march of tourism. To make things still worse, the historic centres of many great European cities, such as London or Rome, are fast becoming occupied by tourists with clicking cameras and left by all local residents except for the souvenir sellers.

 

In conclusion, I want to say that the problems caused by tourism are not something that cannot be solved or prevented. In my opinion, tourism should be given a humanistic direction. Personally, I am for tourism that minimises its own environmental impact, respects local cultures and human rights as well as promotes knowledge and understanding.

Task 43. Modern life is impossible without travelling. People travel the globe to see modern cities and ancient towns, to enjoy picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. But does travelling really broaden our minds?On the one hand, it does because when you travel you are exposed to things which you would probably never experience if you stayed at home. To begin with, travelling gives us an opportunity to explore the country and learn about its customs and traditions. In addition, it is a good chance to try national food and take part in national festivals. Moreover, travelling is the best way to practise foreign languages and to make new friends.However, there are people who travel to ‘all inclusive clubs’. It does not really matter to them which country they are in as long as they have an opportunity to relax. They do not bother to practise a foreign language and even if they go on excursions, they only take pictures and do not get any useful information. In this case travelling does not broaden their mind. Besides, when people travel on business, they are usually too concerned about their problems and have little time to explore the place they travel to.To sum up, travel can expand people’s outlook if they travel in order to gain new experiences. On the contrary, if tourists are too lazy, they will not benefit from their journeys. So we may say that travel broadens the minds which want to be broadened.

Task 44. Most teenagers today are given some pocket money by their parents. However, they often feel this is not enough for their needs. As a result, the question of whether they should have a part-time job often comes up.In my opinion, young people should be allowed to work part-time if they want to. First of all, it will give them a useful introduction to the world of work. By earning money, teens can learn how a business works from the inside out as well as get some working experience. Besides, a part-time job will teach teenagers the value of things and make them more responsible and careful about money. They will understand that money does not grow on trees, it has to be earned. Finally, having extra money will make young people more independent of their parents.Many parents say that teenagers are too young to work and that they should concentrate on their school work. Although this is true, I think that there are jobs for teenagers that will not take up too much time or can be done at weekends, for example, delivering newspapers or babysitting. In addition, young people can find a holiday job during the summer and earn money for something special.

In conclusion, I want to stress that teenagers will really benefit from having a part-time job. Nevertheless, they should not forget that their main task is to get education therefore their part-time jobs must not distract them from studying.

Task 45. With recent advances in technology, lots of people have a chance to work at home instead of going into the main office every day. This work style is a mixed blessing, though.On the one hand, if you work from home, you can structure your day to suit your personal needs. You can work as much, or as little, as you like and no one will look over your shoulder. Besides, you do not have to commute long distances to and from work and pay for your travel expenses. What is more, if you are married, you can spend more time with your kids, playing with them or training them.On the other hand, working from home takes a phenomenal amount of self-discipline to start work when you know you do not have to be at the office by 9 a.m. In addition, there is no outside pressure to be busy so you must be entirely self-motivated. Moreover, there is a danger of putting in too many hours or overworking because there is no one to tell you that your working day is over. Finally, you will not be able to communicate with your colleagues so you may feel cut off from the rest of the world.To sum up, working from home can be a great solution for certain people. However, like everything else in life, this work style has both pros and cons. That is why everyone should make a choice according to their preferences.

Task 46. Nowadays young people have various job opportunities. No wonder that it is difficult for them to choose their future occupation. They often have to make a choice between money and job satisfaction.I believe that the major concern when choosing a job should be our interests and talents. To begin with, a future career should fit our personality, otherwise it is not going to be very fulfilling. Besides, it is unlikely that a job will be done properly unless we are interested in it. Our attitude will surely have a negative impact. So I think it is better to choose a profession that suits our interests.It is natural that many teenagers want to have high salaries to be able to buy everything they want. In their opinion, the more money they get, the more they will be respected. However, countless surveys show that money does not necessarily lead to job satisfaction. What is more, if you only work to earn money, your life will soon become extremely boring. On the contrary, if you really enjoy your job, you will achieve success and get the reward and respect that you truly deserve.In conclusion, I want to stress that while salary is important, teenagers should not consider earnings as the primary factor when choosing their future occupation. Personally, I enjoy travelling therefore I want my career to be connected with tourism. I cannot say that I am indifferent to money but the most important thing for me is job satisfaction.

Task 47. It is often believed that today’s teenagers are much worse than they used to be in the past. However, are they really as bad as they are thought to be?To my mind, teenagers are criticised for no reason. To start with, nowadays more teenagers leave school with good qualifications and go to universities than ever before. There are millions of young people who achieve great things and become successful. In addition, lots of teens do household chores, look after their younger siblings or have part-time jobs. More than that, a growing number of teenagers take part in different sports competitions and win medals.Many adults criticise teens for having bad habits like drinking or smoking. They also believe that modern teenagers are cruel and aggressive. I do not think it is fair that all teenagers are being labelled as problem. Not everyone who is a teenager drinks and gets involved in fights. Very few of them think it is clever to go out and start fighting. Of course, there are some rebellious teenage subcultures, but they are opposed to the materialism in the society. In fact, most teens think about changing the world to the best.To sum up, the main reason for such unjust attitude to teenagers is the generation gap. It is difficult for adults to admit that teenagers have the right to have their own fashion, music and habits. Of course not all teens are ideal, but by and large they are no worse than their parents.

Task 48. There is no doubt that the present way of life differs much from the one people had in the past. However, while young people appreciate the advantages of the modern lifestyle, it is often criticized by older people.In my opinion, nowadays young people are offered many more life opportunities than in the past. To begin with, due to technological progress teenagers can travel around the world and expand their outlook. In addition, the Internet allows talented people to show their achievements and to find a job in any part of the world. What is more, new technology has made our everyday lives easier therefore we can spend more time on our education and leisure activities.However, our grandparents think young people today are in greater danger because of drugs, new viruses and violence. I would not say that because nowadays teenagers are aware of the bad effects of drug addiction and take care of their health. Besides, most dangerous diseases can now be cured whereas in the past people died of incurable illnesses. As for violence, crime has always existed in the world but today we have better ways of protection.In conclusion, I want to say that the old days were not as good as some people think they were. Of course, we still have lots of problems but, nevertheless, I find modern way of life more attractive as it allows me to make the most of my abilities.

Task 49. Although wearing school uniform is not compulsory any more, it continues to be a subject of heated debate between teachers and schoolchildren.On the one hand, it is believed that pupils who wear school uniforms perform better academically in school. It is true because children are often so focused on their wardrobe that it distracts them from learning. In addition, experts claim that teenagers who wear school uniforms behave more appropriately in the school environment. What is more, lots of pupils are often teased because they do not wear expensive designer clothes to school. So those students whose parents cannot afford stylish clothes will feel more comfortable.On the other hand, children hate wearing the same clothes all the time because it stifles their self-expression and remove their individuality. Besides, most school uniforms are formal and rather uncomfortable, especially in hot weather, whereas children need to feel comfortable in order to maximize learning. Uniforms can therefore deter academic success. Moreover, although school uniforms cost less than trendy children’s clothing, they increase the amount of clothing parents will have to buy for their children.To conclude, when both sides of the argument are looked at, I would argue that the best solution would be to design a cheap comfortable uniform that allows children to wear individual items so as to express their individuality. Personally, I do not mind wearing a uniform because it gives me a sense of belonging and makes me feel a bit different from students of other schools.

Task 50. What people wear says a lot about who they are and what they do. It is not surprising that teenagers are so concerned about their clothes. However, their parents think that following fashion is a waste of time.From my point of view, it is important to look smart and attractive. We cannot go through life with the same hairstyle or make-up. I believe it is also necessary for teenagers to follow fashion. When you are up with fashion, you feel confident. Nevertheless, I feel that looking clean and tidy is even more important than looking stylish. What is more, everyone should find their own style to express their individuality. I hate when people dress alike. As for me, I prefer hand-made or designer clothes and try to look stylish.Many adults do not understand why teens spend so much time and money on their clothes. Moreover, they are often quite old-fashioned and do not accept modern trends in clothing. They say that fashion comes and goes but classical style remains. I cannot agree with them because teenage fashion is quite specific. Nobody likes to dress in styles that are too old for them, and it is no fun being teased because of it.In conclusion, I would argue that modern lifestyle forces us to look stylish because people judge us by our clothes. It is especially important in business where your look can actually make or lose you money. Therefore I think we should learn how to look nice.

 

Глава 4. Анкета. Резюме

 

4.1. Рекомендации по заполнению анкеты

Анкеты заполняют печатными или полупечатными буквами, учитывая следующие правила:

1. Полное имя (Full name) – сначала пишется имя, потом фамилия. Отчество (Patronymic/Middle name) можно не указывать, если оно не выделено в отдельную графу: Olga (Sergeevna) Kovaleva Имя (First Name) – указывается только имя (без отчества).Фамилия (Surname) – указывается фамилия.

2. Домашний адрес (Home address/Address) – указывается в принятом в Великобритании порядке: номер квартиры, корпуса, дома, улица, город (почтовый индекс факультативно), страна: Flat 15 Block 1 Prohodchikov Street Moscow 129347 Russia Слова Flat, Block, Street, Avenue, Ulitsa, Prospekt пишутся с заглавной буквы. Можно использовать общепринятые сокращения, которые пишутся с заглавной буквы: Fl , Apt , St , Ave , Ul , Pr.

3. Гражданство (Nationality) – английское слово ‘Nationality’ соответствует русскому «гражданство» и не предполагает указания вашей этнической принадлежности: Russian Russia Russian Federation

4. Религия (Religion) – название религии пишется с заглавной буквы. Orthodox/Catholic/Muslim/Protestant/Buddhist/Jewish/none/—

5. Дата рождения (Date of birth) – может быть написана словами или цифрами. Названия месяцев пишутся с заглавной буквы. В зависимости от задания может использоваться британский или американский вариант. British: 24 May 2009 American: May 24, 2009 24/05/2005 05/24/2009 24.05.2009 05.24.2009

6. Место рождения (place of birth) – географические названия пишутся с заглавной буквы. Возможна разная степень детализации, но соблюдается общий принцип в порядке написания от меньшего к большему: город, страна;деревня, область, страна:1) St. Petersburg, Russia 2) Fokino Village, Bryansk Region, Russia

7. Пол (sex) – женский – female; мужской – male. Очень часто в анкетах указаны варианты ( m/f или M/F ) с просьбой выбрать нужный вариант: delete (вычеркните ненужное), circle (обведите нужное), underline (подчеркните нужное).

8. Школа (School) – слова School/Gymnasium/Lyceum используются факультативно и пишутся с заглавной буквы. Знак «номер» может быть №, No или #: School #1099 или #1099 Gymnasium № 1577 или № 1577

9. Школьные предметы (school subjects) – названия языков всегда пишутся с заглавной буквы: French/English/German названия отдельных предметов – как с заглавной, так и с прописной буквы:History или history Chemistry или chemistry

10. Интересы и увлечения (Hobbies and interests) При ответе на этот пункт используются существительные и герундий:History, photography, cooking, travelling

11. Подпись (signature) – в конце анкеты часто требуется подпись.

 

4.2. Задания на заполнение анкеты

Task 1. Imagine you are going to attend a sports weekend. Fill in the application form below, giving details about yourself.

Task 2. You are going to take part in an international exchange programme. The programme organizers asked you to fill in the following form.

Task 3. Your parents are thinking of sending you to an English school for a year to improve your English. They received the following form from ISIS (Independent School Information Service), an organization which helps parents to choose the right school for their children. Fill in the form.

Task 4. Imagine you are going to apply for the position of secretary at an international company. Please fill in the application form below, giving details about yourself.

 

4.3. Примеры заполнения анкет

Task 1.

Task 2.

Task 3.

Task 4.

 

4.4. Рекомендации к составлению резюме

Успех поиска работы во многом зависит от того, как составлено резюме. Резюме является кратким изложением данных о вашем образовании и профессиональном опыте и включает, в том числе, краткие биографические справки. Объем резюме не должен превышать одной страницы.

Как правило, в резюме содержится следующая информация:

1.  Личные данные (фамилия, имя, отчество, постоянный адрес проживания, контактный и домашний телефоны, дата рождения, возраст, семейное положение, сведения 0 детях и т. д.).

2.  Цель поиска работы (очень кратко).

3.  Сведения о полученном образовании (в обратном хронологическом порядке): названия и адреса средних школ, даты посещения, полученная квалификация в средних учебных заведениях; названия и адреса колледжей и университетов, даты учебы и полученная квалификация).

4.  Сведения о дополнительном образовании (в обратном хронологическом порядке): названия курсов и их продолжительность, даты посещения и полученная квалификация.

5.  Информация о ваших умениях и навыках: уровень владения иностранными языками, наличие водительских прав, навыки работы на компьютере, скорость машинописи и т. п.

6.  Данные об опыте работы (в обратном хронологическом порядке): даты работы в каждой должности, название фирмы, должность, краткое описание обязанностей, достиг-нутые успехи за время работы в данной должности, причина увольнения и т. п.

7.  Информация о личных интересах: игра на музыкальных инструментах, чтение определенного жанра книг, увлечение искусством, увлечение конкретным видом спорта и т. п.

8.  Наличие рекомендательных писем: имена в полной форме и адреса людей, которые согласились дать вам рекомендации; если по требованию потенциального работодателя могут быть представлены рекомендательные письма, на это следует указать отдельно, сделав следующую пометку: References are available on request.

При составлении резюме желательно использовать следующие фразы: I developed; I created; I devised; I controlled; 1 initiated; I negotiated.

 

4.5. Примеры составления резюме

 

Литература

1. Единый государственный экзамен. Контрольно-измерительные материалы. Английский язык. – М.: Просвещение, 2005.

2.  Ивашова О.Д. Единый государственный экзамен. Типовые тестовые задания. Английский язык. – М.: Экзамен, 2004.

3. Единый государственный экзамен 2006. Английский язык. Учебно-тренировочные материалы для подготовки учащихся. – М.: Интеллект-Центр, 2006.

4. Учебное пособие для подготовки к ЕГЭ по английскому языку: Чтение. Письмо./ М. Манн, С. Тейлор-Ноулз, E. Клековкина. – Макмиллан, 2006.

5. Английский язык нового тысячелетия. Учебник английского языка для 10–11 классов общеобразовательной школы./ О.Л. Гроза и др. – Обнинск: Титул, 2003.

6.  Кисунько Е., Музланова Е. Бизнес-курс английского языка. – М.: ЮНВЕС, – 2001.

7.  Malcolm Mann, Steve Taylore Knowles. Laser B2. – Macmillan, 2008.

8. Luke Prodromou. Rising Star. – Macmillan, 2001.

9.  Michael Harris, David Mower, Anna Sikorzynska. Opportunities. – Pearson Education Limited, 2006.

10. Демоверсии ЕГЭ по английскому языку. – www.fipi.ru.

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