Глава 1

Treatment of schizophrenia in the tabloid press: E. C. Johnstone, C. P. L Freeman, and A. K. Zealley, Companion to Psychiatry Studies, 6th edn. (Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1998).

The incidence of schizophrenia throughout the world: A. Jablensky, «Schizophrenia — Recent Epidemiologic Issues», Epidemiological Reviews (1995), 17 (1): 10–20.

The cost of schizophrenia: L. M. Davies and M. F. Drummond, «Economics and Schizophrenia — the Real Cost», British Journal of Psychiatry (1994), 165: 18–21, suppl. 25.

«I am more and more losing contact»: A. J. Lewis, «The psychopathology of insight», in Inquiries in Psychiatry: Clinical and Social Investigations (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1967), pp. 16–29.

The writings of George Trosse and John Perceval: Dale Petersen (ed.), A Mad People's History of Madness (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1982).

P. Pinel Traité Médico-Philosophique sur Г. Alienation Mentale (Brosson, Pans, 1809).

J. Haslam, Observations on Madness and Melancholy, 2nd edn. (John Callow, 1809).

B. A. Morel, Traité des Maladies Mentales (Masson, Paris, 1860).

Глава 2

Development of the concept of schizophrenia: G. Berrios and R. Porter (eds.), A History of Clinical Psychiatry (Athlone Press, 1995).

E Kraepelin, «Dementia praecox and paraphrenia», tr. in The Clinical Routes of the Schizophrenia Concept, ed. J. Cutting and M.

Sheperd (Cambridge University Press, 1987).

E Bleuler, «Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias», tr. in The Clinical Routes of the Schizophrenia Concept, ed. J. Cutting and M Sheperd (Cambridge University Press, 1987).

Pseudo-neurotic schizophrenia: P. Hoch and P. Polatin, «Pseudoneurotic forms of schizophrenia», Psychiatric Quarterly (1949) 23: 248-56.

US/UK diagnostic project: J. E Cooper et at., «Psychiatric diagnosis in New York and London», Maudsley Monograph 20 (Oxford University Press, 1972).

DSM-IV: American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. (Washington DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994).

Present State Examination: J. K. Wing, J. E. Cooper, and N. Sartorius, Description and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms (Cambridge University Press, 1974).

Schneider's first rank symptoms: C. S. Mellors, «First-rank symptoms of schizophrenia», British Journal of Psychiairy (1970), 117:15–23.

Is there a form of schizophrenia with a good outcome?: E C. Johnstone et al., «The nature of „transient“ and „partial“ psychoses: findings from the Northwick Park „Functional“ Psychosis Study», Psychological Medicine (1996), 26: 361-9.

The Northwick Park first episode study: J. F. MacMillan, T. J. Crow, A. L. Johnson, and E. G. Johnstone, «Northwick Park study of first episodes of schizophrenia III. Short-term outcome in trial entrants and trial eligible patients», British Journal of Psychiatry (1986), 148: 128-33.

The outcome of schizophrenia: World Health Organization, Schizophrenia: An International Follow-up Study (John Wiley & Sons. New York, 1979).

Edinburgh high-risk study: E. C. Johnstone et al., «Edinburgh highrisk study — findings after four years. Demographic, attainment and psychopathological issues», Schizophrenia Research (2000), 46:1-15.

The genetic «spectrum» of schizophrenia: K. S. Kendler et al., «The structure of schizotypy — a pilot multitrait twin study». Psychiatry Research (1991) 36:19–36.

Глава 3

The central executive: A. Baddeley, Working Memory (Oxford University Press, 1986).

IQ in schizophrenia: C. D. Frith, J. Leary, C. Cahill and E. C. Johnstone, «Performance on psychological tests. Demographic and clinical correlates of the results of these tests», British Journal of Psychiatry (1991), suppl. 13: 26-9, 44-6.

IQ. decline in schizophrenia: J. Rabinowitz et al., «Cognitive and behavioural functioning in men with schizophrenia both before and shortly after first admission to hospital — cross-sectional analysis», British Journal of Psychiatry (2000), 177: 26–32.

IQ and institutionalization: E. C. Johnstone et al., «The dementia of dementia praecox», Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (1978), 57: 305-24.

IQ and community care: C. Kelly et al., «Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 20 — cognitive function in a catchment-area-based population of patients with schizophrenia», British Journal of Psychiatry (2000), 177: 348-53.

IQ and drugs: S. Mohamed et al., «Generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia — a study of first-episode patients». Archives of General Psychiatry (1999), 56(8): 749-54.

The core cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: B. Elvevag and T. E. Goldberg, «Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is the core of the disorder». Critical Reviews in Neurobiology (2000), 14(1): 1-21.

Motivation in schizophrenia: S. G. Heilman et al., «Monetary reinforcement and Wisconsin Card Sorting performance in schizophrenia: why show me the money?», Schizophrenia Research (1998), 34(1–2): 67–75.

Single case approach: T. Shallice, P. W. Burgess, and C. D. Frith, «Can the neuropsychological case-study approach be applied to schizophrenia?». Psychological Medicine (1991), 21: 661-73.

Classifying symptoms: T. J. Crow, «Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease process?», British Medical Journal (1980), 280(6207): 66-8.

Intellectual functioning and symptoms: E. C. Johnstone and C. D. Frith, «Validation of three dimensions of schizophrenic symptoms in a large unselected sample of patients». Psychological Medicine (1996), 26(4): 669-79.

Genius and madness: N. C. Andreasen, «Creativity and mental illness: prevalence rates in writers and their first-degree relatives». The American Journal of Psychiatry (1987), 144(10): 1.288-92; A. M. Ludwig, «Creative achievement and psychopathology: comparison among professions», American Journal of Psychotherapy (1992), 46(3): 330-56.

Superior abilities in the relatives of patients with schizophrenia: J. L. Karlsson, «Mental abilities of male relatives of psychotic patients», Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (2001), 104(6): 466-8.

Глава 4

Amphetamine psychosis: P. H. Connell, Amphetamine Psychosis (Maudsley Monographs, 1958); S. Tatetsu, «Metamphetamine psychosis», in Current Concepts of Amphetamine Abuse, ed. E. H. Elinwood (Rockville NIMH, 1972).

Experimental studies of amphetamine: J. D. Griffith, J. H. Cavanaugh, J. Held, et al., «Experimental psychosis induced by the administration of d-amphetamine», in Amphetamine and Related Compounds, ed. E. Costa and S. Garattini (Raven Press, 1970), pp. 897–904;

В. M. Angrist and S. Gershon, «The phenomenology of experimentally induced amphetamine psychosis: Preliminary observations». Biological Psychiatry (1970), 2: 95-107.

Amphetamine and dopamine: L. Kokkinidis and H. Anisman, «Amphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia — a dual model», Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews (1981), 5 (4): 449-61.

Cannabis and schizophrenia: S. Andreasson, A. Engstrom, P. Allebeck, and U. Rydberg, «Cannabis and schizophrenia — a longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts». Lancet (1987), 2 (8574): 1483-6; W. Hall and L. Degenhardt, «Cannabis use and psychosis: a review of clinical and epidemiological evidence», Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry (2000), 34 (1): 26–34.

The cannabis receptor: M. Glass, «The role of cannabinoids in neurodegenerative diseases». Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry (2001), 25 (4): 743-65.

PCP and schizophrenia: D. C. Javitt and S. R. Zukin, «Recent advances in the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia», American Journal of Psychiatry (1991), 148 (10): 1301-8.

Discovery of antipsychotic drugs: J. Delay and P. Deniker, «Le traitement des psychoses par une méthode neurolyptique dérivée de l'hibernothérapie», in Congres de Médicins Aliénistes et Neurologistes de France, ed. P. Cossa (Maisson Editeurs Libraires de I’Académie de Médicine, Paris, 1952), pp. 497–502.

Efficacy of antipsychotic drugs: J. M. Davis and D. L. Gerver, «Neuroleptics — clinical use in psychiatry», in Handbook of Psychopharmacology Vol 10. Neuroleptics and Schizophrenia, ed. L. L. Iversen and S. D. Iversen (Plenum Press, 1978).

Dopamine and Parkinson's disease: 0. Hornykiewicz, «Dopamine in the basal ganglia. Its role and therapeutic implications (including the clinical use of L-DOPA)», British Medical Bulletin (1973), 29: 172-8.

The dopamine theory of schizophrenia: A. Carlsson and M. Lindquist, «Effect of chlorpromazine and haloperidol of formation of 3-methoxytyramine and normetanephrine in mouse brain», Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1963): 140-4.

Dopamine blockade and the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs: P. Seeman et al., «Antipsychotic drug doses and neuroleptic/dopamine receptors». Nature (1976), 261: 717-9.

Atypical antipsychotics: J. Kane, G. Honigfeld, J. Singer, and H. Meltzer, «Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic. A double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine». Archives of General Psychiatry (1988), 45: 789-96.

A revised dopamine theory of schizophrenia: S. Kapur and G. Remington, «Dopamine D(2) receptors and their role in atypical antipsychotic action: still necessary and may even be sufficient», Biological Psychiatry (2001), 50: 873-83.

Imaging dopamine receptors: M. Laruelle, «Imaging dopamine transmission in schizophrenia. A review and meta-analysis». Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1998), 42: 211-21.

Глава 5

Neuropathology of schizophrenia: Paul J. Harrison, «The neuropathology of schizophrenia: A critical review of the data and their interpretation». Brain (1999), 122: 593-62.

Genetics of schizophrenia: 1.1. Gottesman, Scnizophrenia Genesis: The Origins of Madness (W. H. Freeman & Co, 1991).

Adoption studies: S. S. Kety et at., «Mental illness in the biological and adoptive families of adopted individuals who have become schizophrenic: a preliminary report based on psychiatric interviews», Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Psychopathology Association (1975), 63: 147-65.

Genetic linkage studies: K. S. Kendler, «The feasibility of linkage studies in schizophrenia», in Biological Perspectives of Schizophrenia, ed. H. Helmchan and F. A. Henn (Wylie, 1987).

Susceptibility genes in schizophrenia: C. R. Cloninger, «The discovery of susceptibility genes for mental disorders». Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA (2002), 99: 13365-7.

Velo-cardio facial syndrome: К. C. Murphy and M. J. Owen, «Velocardio facial syndrome. A model for understanding the genetics and pathogenesis of schizophrenia», British Journal of Psychiatry (2001), 179: 397–402.

Enlarged ventricles in schizophrenia: S. Lewis, «Structural brain imaging in biological psychiatry», British Medical Bulletin (1996), 52: 465-73; S. M. Lawrie and S. S. Abukmeil «Brain abnormality in schizophrenia. A systematic and quantitative review of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging studies», British Journal of Psychiatry (1998), 172: 110-20.

Gliosis in schizophrenia: G. W. Roberts et al., «Is there gliosis in schizophrenia? Investigation of the temporal lobe». Biological Psychiatry (1987), 22: 1459-68.

Brain changes prior to onset of schizophrenia: S. M. Lawrie et al., «Brain structure, genetic liability, and psychotic symptoms in subjects at high risk of developing schizophrenia». Biological Psychiatry (2001), 15: 811-23.

Functional brain imaging in schizophrenia: S. M. Lawrie, «Neuropathology and brain imaging in schizophrenia», in Schizophrenia: Concepts and Clinical Management ed. E. G. Johnstone, M. Humphries, F. Lang, S. M. Lawrie, and R. Sandier (Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 70-128.

Brain connectivity: K. J. Friston, «Dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia». World Psychiatry (2002), 1: 66–71.

Глава 6

Psychodynamic theories of schizophrenia: P. J. McKenna, Schizophrenia and Related Syndromes (Psychology Press, 1997).

Social stress as a cause of schizophrenia: G. W. Brown and J. L. Birley, «Crises and life changes and the onset of schizophrenia», Journal of Health and Social Behaviour (1968), 9: 203-14; M. Malzacher, J. Merz, and D. Ebnother, «Marked life events prior to an acute schizophrenic episode. Comparison of a sample of first admissions with a normal sample», tr. by authors, Archivfur Psychiatric und Nervenkrankheiten (1981), 230: 227-42.

Family relationships as a cause of schizophrenia: L. Wynne and M. Singer, «Thought disorder and family relations of schizophrenics. I. A research strategy. II. A classification of forms of thinking», Arhives of General Psychiatry (1963), 9: 191–206; S. Hirsch and J. P. Leff. «Abnormalities in the parents of schizophrenics» (Maudsley Monograph No. 22, Oxford University Press, 1975).

Institutionalization and schizophrenia: D. G. Cunningham Owens and E. C. Johnstone, «The disabilities of chronic schizophrenia — their nature and the factors contributing to their development», British Journal of Psychiatry (1980), 136: 384-95; D. A. Curson, C. Pantellis, J. Ward, and T. R. E. Barnes, «Institutionalisatism and schizophrenia, 30 years on», British Journal of Psychiatry (1992), 160: 230-41.

Gender differences in schizophrenia: H. Hafner et al., «Generating and testing a causal explanation of the gender difference in age at first onset of schizophrenia». Psychological Medicine (1993), 23: 925-40.

Season of birth and schizophrenia: T. N. Bradbury and G. A. Miller, «Season of birth in schizophrenia: a review of evidence, methodology, and etiology», Psychological Bulletin (1985), 98: 569-94.

Maternal flu and schizophrenia: E. O'Callaghan et al., «Schizophrenia after prenatal exposure to 1957 A2 influenza epidemic», Lancet (1991), 337: 1248-50; R. E. Kendell and I. W. Kemp, «Maternal influenza in the etiology of schizophrenia». Archives of General Psychiatry (1989), 46: 878-82.

Famine and schizophrenia: E. S. Susser and S. P. Lin, «Schizophrenia after prenatal exposure to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944–1945», Archives of General Psychiatry (1992), 49: 983-8.

Birth complications and schizophrenia: J. R. Geddes and S. M. Lawrie, «Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis», British Journal of Psychiatry (1995), 167: 786-93.

Глава 7

The abyss of understanding: K. Jaspers, General Psychopathology (Manchester University Press, 1962).

Hallucinations as subvocal speech: L. N. Gould, «Auditory hallucinations and subvocal speech». Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (1949), 109: 418-27; P. Green and M. Preston, «Reinforcement of vocal correlates of auditory hallucinations by auditory feedback: a case study», British Journal of Psychiatry (1981), 139: 204-8.

Inner speech: A. D. Baddeley and G. J. Hitch, Working Memory. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory (G. H. Bower Academic Press, 1974), pp. 47–90.

Articulation as a treatment for auditory hallucinations: H. E. Nelson, S. Thrasher, and T. R. Barnes, «Practical ways to alleviate auditory hallucinations», British Medical Journal (1991), 302: 327.

Hallucinations and inner speech: C. L. Evans, P. K. McGuire, and A. S. David, «Is auditory imagery defective in patients with auditory hallucinations?». Psychological Medicine (2000), 30(1): 137-48.

Brain activity and inner speech: P. K. McGuire et al., «Functional anatomy of inner speech and auditory verbal imagery». Psychological Medicine (1996), 26: 29–38; D. A. Silbersweig et al., «Afunctional neuroanatomy of hallucinations in schizophrenia». Nature (1995), 378: 176-9; S. S. Shergill et al., «Mapping auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging». Archives of «GeneralPsychiatry (2000), 57(11): 1033-8.

The concept of corollary discharge: H. von Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (Leipzig, Voss, 1866).

Self-monitoring and schizophrenia: I. Feinberg, „Efference copy and corollary discharge: implications for thinking and its disorders“, fSchizophrenia Bulletin (1978;, 4: 636-40; C. D. Frith, „The positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia reflect impairments in the perception and initiation of action“. Psychological Medicine (1987), 17(3): 631-48; R. P. Bentall G. A. Baker, and S. Havers, „Reality monitoring and psychotic hallucinations“, British Journal of Clinical Psychology (1991), 30: 213-22.

Self-monitoring and motor control: P. Haggard, C. Newman, and E. Magno, „On the perceived time of voluntary actions“, British Journal of Psychology (1999), 90: 291–303; C. D. Frith and D. J. Done, „Experiences of alien control in schizophrenia reflect a disorder in the central monitoring of action“. Psychological Medicine (1989), 19(2): IV) 63.

Imagining movements and schizophrenia: P. Maruff, P. Wilson, and J Currie, „Abnormalities of motor imagery associated with somatic passivity phenomena in schizophrenia“. Schizophrenia Research (in press).

Tickling and schizophrenia: S.-J. Blakemore et al., „The perception ot self-produced sensory stimuli in patients with auditory hallucinations and passivity experiences: evidence for a breakdown in self-monitoring“. Psychological Medicine (2000), 30: 1131-9.

Brain activity and self-generated sensations: S. A. Spence et al., „А PET study of voluntary movement in schizophrenic patients experiencing passivity phenomena (delusions ot alien control)“. Brain (1997), 120: 1997–2011; J. M. Ford et al., „Cortical responsiveness during talking and listening in schizophrenia: An event-related brain potential study“. Biological Psychiatry (2001), 50(7): 540-9.

The disconnection hypothesis: S. M. Lawrie et al., „Reduced frontotemporal functional connectivity in schizophrenia associated with auditory hallucinations“. Biological Psychiatry (2002), 51(12): 1008-11; J. M. Ford et al., „Reduced communication between frontal and temporal lobes during talking in schizophrenia“. Biological Psychiatry (2002), 51(6): 485-92; K. J. Friston, „Dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia“. World Psychiatry (2002), 1: 66–71.

The anarchic hand: C. Marchetti and S. Delia Salla, „Disentangling the alien and anarchic hand“. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry (1998), 3: 191–208.

Other minds: R. Corcoran, G. Mercer, and C. D. Frith, „Schizophrenia, symptomatology and social inference: Investigating „theory of mind“ in people with schizophrenia“. Schizophrenia Research (1995), 17: 5-13.

Capgras syndrome: G. Blount, „Dangerousness of patients with Capgras syndrome“, Nebraska Medical Journal (1986), 71: 207; H. D. Ellis and A. W. Young, „Accounting for delusional misidentifications“, British Journal of Psychiatry (1990), 157: 239-48.

Weird experiences are not enough: C. Cahill, D. Silbersweig, and С, D. Frith, „Psychotic experiences induced in deluded patients using distorted auditory feedback“. Cognitive Neuropsychiatiy (1996), 1: 201-11.

Efficacy of drug treatment: J. M. Davis and D. L. Gerver, „Neuroleptics-clinical use in psychiatry“, in Handbook of Psychopharmacology. Neuroleptics and Schizophrenia, ed. L. L. Iversen and S. D. Iversen (Plenum Press, 1978).

Efficacy of psychological therapies: S. Pilling et al., „Psychological treatments in schizophrenia: I. Meta-analysis of family intervention and cognitive behaviour therapy“. Psychological Medicine (2002), 32(5): 763-82; S. Pilling et al., „Psychological treatments in schizophrenia: II. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of social skills training and cognitive remediation“. Psychological Medicine (2002), 32(5): 783-91.

Cognitive therapy for hallucinations: P. D. J. Chadwick and M. J. Birchwood, „Challenging the omnipotence of voices: a cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations“, British Journal of Psychiatry (1494), 164:190–201.

Глава 8

L. Percy King, „Criminal complaints with probable causes (a true account)“, in The Inner World of Mental IIlness, ed. Bert Kaplan (Harper & Row, 1964).

The immunity principle: S. Gallagher, „Self-reference and schizophrenia: a cognitive model of immunity to error through misidentification“, in Exploring the Self, ed. D. Zahavi (John Benjamins, 2000).

Hallucinations caused by direct brain stimulation: H. W. Lee et al., „Mapping of functional organization in human visual cortex — Electrical cortical stimulation“. Neurology (2000), 54: 849-54.

Rational justifications for delusions: A. Baddeley et al., „Schizophrenic delusions and the construction of autobiographical memory“, in Remembering Our Past: Studies in Autobiographical Memory, ed. D. C. Rubin (Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 384–428.

Folie a deux: R. Mentjox, C. A. van Houten, and C. G. Kooiman, „Induced psychotic disorder: clinical aspects, theoretical considerations, and some guidelines for treatment“. Comprehensive Psychiatry (1993), 34: 120-6.

Violence and mental illness on television: G. Gerbner, L. Gross, M. Morgan, and N. Signorielli, „Health and medicine on television“. The New England Journal of Medicine (1981), 305: 901-4.

Violence and schizophrenia: E. Walsh, A. Buchanan, and T. Fahy, Violence and schizophrenia: examining the evidence», British Journal of Psychiatry (2002), 180: 490-5.

Predicting violence in schizophrenia: S. S. Shtrgill and G. Szmukler, «How predictable is violence and suicide in community psychiatry practice?». Journal of Mental Health (1998), 7: 383–401.

Inquiries into failures of community care: Louis Blom-Cooper, «The falling shadow: one patient's mental health care 1978–1993», report of the Committee of Inquiry into the events leading up to and surrounding the fatal incident at the Edith Morgan Centre, Torbay, on 1 September 1993 (Duckworth, 1995).

Drug treatment and psychological treatment have the same effect on the brain: L. R. Baxter et al., «Caudate glucose metabolic-rate changes with both drug and behavior-therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder». Archives of General Psychiatry (1992), 49: 681-9.

Brain activity during acts of will: C. D. Frith et al., «Willed action and the prefrontal cortex in man». Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (1991), B: 241-6; B. Libet et al., «Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness-potential). The unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act». Brain (1983), 106: 623-42.