1 Dietert, R.R. and Dietert, J.M. (2012), ‘The completed self: An immunological view of the human-microbiome superorganism and risk of chronic diseases’, Entropy, Vol.14, pp.2036–65, www.mdpi.com/1099- 4300/14/11/2036

2 Professor Rodney Dietert was awarded the James G. Wilson Publication Award for his paper published in Birth Defects Research: ‘The microbiome in early life: self-completion and microbiota protection as health priorities’. See Chavez N. (27 May 2015), ‘Rodney Dietert, PhD, Receives James G. Wilson Publication Award connection’, Birth Defects Research Connection, The Teratology Society, connection.teratology.org/p/bl/ et/%20blogid=17&blogaid=440

3 Doula! The Film (2010, 60 mins), Alto Films Ltd, doulafilm.com

4 Freedom For Birth (2012, 60 mins), Alto Films Ltd freedomforbirth. com. Released on 20 September 2012 with over 1,000 public screenings worldwide. It has been estimated that more than 100,000 people saw the film on one day.

5 Microbirth (2014, 60 mins), Alto Films Ltd, microbirth.com

6 Maurier R. (2013), ‘C-section, formula feeding affect babies’ gut bacteria’, University of Alberta, 11 February, uofa.ualberta.ca/news-and-events/newsarticles/2013/february/csectionformulaaffectbabiesgutbacteria

7 Darmasseelane, K., Hyde, M.J., Santhakumaran, S., Gale, C., Modi, N. (2014), ‘Mode of delivery and offspring body mass index, overweight and obesity in adult life: a systematic review and meta- analysis’, PLoS ONE, Vol. 9 9(2): e87896,journals.plos.org/plosone/ article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0087896

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8 Smith, P.A. (2014), ‘Is your body mostly microbes? Actually, we have no idea’, Boston Globe, 14 September, www.bostonglobe.com/ ideas/2014/09/13/your-body-mostly-microbes-actually-have-idea/ qlcoKot4wfUXecjeVaFKFN/story.html

9 National Institutes of Health (2012), ‘NIH Human Microbiome Project defines normal bacterial makeup of the body’, 13 June, www.nih.gov/ news/health/jun2012/nhgri-13.htm

10 Bowers, R., Sullivan, A., Costello, E., Collett, J., Knight, R., and Fierer, N. (2011), ‘Sources of bacteria in outdoor air across cities in the midwestern United States’, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 77(18), 6350–6

11 Lewis, D.A., Brown, R., Williams, J., White, P., Jackobson, S.K., Marchesi,J.R., and Drake, M.J. (2013), ‘The human urinary microbiome; bacterial DNA in voided urine of asymptomatic adults’, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. Vol. 3(41), www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC3744036/

12 Wheatley, M.B., Rud, E., Warren, R.L., Holt, R.A., Surette, M.G., and Power, C. (2013), ‘Brain microbial populations in HIV/AIDS: a-proteobacteria predominate independent of host immune status’, PLOS One 8(1): e54673, journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal. pone.0054673

13 Kong, F., and Singh, R.P. (2008), ‘Disintegration of solid foods in human stomach’, Journal of Food Science, Vol. 73(5): R67–80, www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/18577009

14 Rao, J.N., and Wang, J.Y. (2010), ‘Intestinal architecture and development’, in Regulation of Gastrointestinal Mucosal Growth (Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences, San Rafael, California), www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/ NBK54098

15 Stephen, A.M., and Cummings, J.H. (1980), ‘The microbial contribution to human faecal mass’, Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. 13(1), pp.45–56, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7359576

16 FARE – Food Allergy Research and Education, ‘Food allergy basics: facts and statistics’, www.foodallergy.org/facts

17 In the study, type-I diabetes had risen from 1.5 cases per 1,000 children in 2002 to 2.3 cases per 1,000 in 2013. Diabetes Care, 17 December, 2015 https://web.archive.org/web/20160104205615/https://www.nlm.nih.gov/ medlineplus/news/fullstory_156281.html

18 Celiac Disease Foundation, ‘What is celiac disease?’, celiac.org/celiac-disease/what-is-celiac-disease

19 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Overweight and Obesity Statistics www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/Pages/overweight-obesity-statistics.aspx

20 NHS Choices (2016), ‘Heartburn and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)’, www.nhs.uk/conditions/Gastroesophageal-reflux-disease/ Pages/Introduction.aspx

21 Clemente, J.C., Pehrsson, E.C., Blaser, M.J., Sandhu, K., Gao, Z., Wang, B., Magris, M., et al. (2015), ‘The microbiome of uncontacted Amerindians’, Science Advances 1(3) pii: e1500183, advances.sciencemag.org/ content/1/3/e1500183

22 Bailey, L.C, Forrest, C.B., Zhang, P., Richards, T.M., Livshits, A., DeRusso, PA. Association of antibiotics in infancy with early childhood obesity. JAMA Pediatrics, 168 (11), pp.1063-9, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/25265089

23 Van Boeckel, T.P., Brower, C, Gilbert, M., Grenfell, B.T., Levin, S.A., Robinson, T.P., et al. (2015), ‘Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 112(18), pp.5649–54, www.pnas.org/content/112/18/5649.abstract

24 Bazian (2015), ‘Antibiotic use in farm animals “threatens human health”’, NHS Choices, www.nhs.uk/news/2015/12December/Pages/Antibiotic-use- in-farm-animals-threatens-human-health.aspx

25 Soil Association, ‘Overuse of antiobiotics in farming’, www.soilassociation. org/antibiotics/overuseofantibioticsinfarming

26 Microbiology Online, ‘Antiobiotics’, www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/ about-microbiology/microbes-and-the-human-body/antibiotics

27 Some people believe that penicillin was actually first discovered by a physician called John Tyndall in 1875; http://itech.dickinson.edu/chemistry/?p=107

28 American Chemical Society, International Historic Chemical Landmarks. ‘Discovery and development of penicillin’, www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/flemingpenicillin.html

29 ‘The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945, The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize, www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/ laureates/1945

30 Turner, M. (2014), ‘Antibiotic resistance: 6 diseases that may come back to haunt us’, The Guardian, 9 May, www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/may/09/6-diseases-becoming-resistant-to-antibiotics

31 World Health Organization (2014), ‘Antimicrobial resistance global report on surveillance 2014’, www.who.int/drugresistance/documents/surveillancereport/en/

32 NHS Choices (2016), Vaginal thrush’, www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Thrush/Pages/Causes.aspx

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33 Park, A. (2015), ‘Babies in the womb aren’t so sterile after all’, TIME, 28 December, time.com/4159249/baby-microbiome-womb

34 Stout, M.J., Conlon, B., Landeau, M., Lee, I., Bower, C., Qiuhong, A., et al. (2013), ‘Identification of intracellular bacteria in the basal plate of the human placenta in term and preterm gestations’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 208(3); 226, e221–e227, www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3740162

35 Aagaard, K., Ma, J., Antony, K.M., Ganu, R., Petrosino, J., and Versalovic, J. (2014), ‘The placenta harbors a unique microbiome’. Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 6(237): 237ra65, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/24848255

36 Cao, B., Stout, M.J., Lee, I., and Mysorekar, I.U. (2014), ‘Placental microbiome and its role in preterm birth’, NeoReviews, Vol. 15(12), e537–e545, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4307601

37 Mueller, N.T., Bakacs, E., Combellick, J., Grigoryan, Z., and Dominguez-Bello, M.G. (2015), ‘The infant microbiome development: mom matters’, Trends in Molecular Medicine, Vol. 21(2), pp.109–117, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4464665

38 Koren, O., Goodrich, J.K., Cullender, T.C., Spor, A., Laitinen, K., BaЁckhed, H.K., et al. (2012), ‘Host remodeling of the gut microbiome and metabolic changes during pregnancy’, Cell, 150, pp.470–480, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/22863002

39 Blaser, M.J., Missing Microbes: How the overuse of antibiotics is fueling our modern plagues (Henry Holt and Co., an imprint of Macmillan Publishers, New York, 2014.), p.94.

40 Dietert, R. & Dietert, J. (2012), ‘The completed self: an immunological view of the human-microbiome superorganism and risk of chronic diseases’ Entropy, Vol. 14, pp.2036–2065, www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/14/11/2036

41 Barker, D.J.P., and Godfrey, K.M (2001), ‘Fetal programming and adult health’, Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 4 (2b), pp.611–624, dx.doi.org/10.1079/PHN2001145, published online 27 September 2007

42 Okada, H., Kuhn, C., Feillet, H, and Bach, J-F. (2010), ‘The “hygiene hypothesis” for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update’, Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Vol. 160(1), pp.1–9, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841828

43 Von Mutius, E. (2010), ‘99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: farm lifestyles and the hygiene hypothesis’, Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Vol. 160(1), pp.130–5; www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20415863

44 BabyMed, ‘En caul birth’, www.babymed.com/en-caul-birth

45 Blaser, M.J., op. cit.,p.95

46 Rodriguez, J.M., Murphy, K., Stanton, C. Ross, R.P., Kober, O.I., Juge, N., et al. (2015), ‘The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life’, Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, Vol. 26: 26050, www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/26050

47 Research by Backhed et al in 2015 suggests that the act of stopping breastfeeding (rather than simply the introduction of solids) could play a part in determining when the microbiome stabilises, but how and why is still unclear.

48 Ward, R.E., Ninonuevo M., Mills, D.A., Lebrilla, C.B., German, J.B. (2006), ‘In vitro fermentation of breast milk oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus gasseri’, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 72, pp.4497–9

49 Kashtanova, D.A., Popenko, A.S., Tkacheva, O.N., Tyakht, A.B., Alexeev, D.G. and Boytsov S.A. (2015), ‘Association between the gut microbiota and diet: fetal life, early childhood, and further life’, Nutrition, published online 31 December 2015, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0899900715005341

50 Voreades, N., Kozil, A., and Weir, T.L. (2014), ‘Diet and the development of the human intestinal microbiome’, Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 5, p494, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4170138

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51 WidstroЁm, A.M., Ransjo-Arvidson, A.B., Christensson, K., Matthiesen, A.S., Winberg, J., and UvnaЁs-Moberg, K. (1987), ‘Gastric suction in healthy newborn infants: effects on circulation and developing feeding behaviour’, Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 76, pp.566–572

52 WidstroЁm, A.M., Lilja, G., Aaltomaa-Michalias, P., DahlloЁf, A., Lintula, M., and Nissen, E. (2011), ‘Newborn behaviour to locate the breast when skin-to-skin: a possible method for enabling early self-regulation’, Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 100(1), pp.79–85, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/20712833

53 La Belle Colustrum, ‘Components of colustrum’, labelleinc.com/human- health/components-of-colostrum

54 Blaser, M.J., Missing Microbes: How the overuse of antibiotics is fueling our modern plagues (Henry Holt and Co., an imprint of Macmillan Publishers, New York, 2014.), p.94

55 Cabrera-Rubio, R., Collado, M.C., Laitinen, K., Salminen, S., Isolauri, E., and Mira, A. (2012), The human milk microbiome changes over lactation and is shaped by maternal weight and mode of delivery. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 96(3), pp.544–51

56 HiPP organic, ‘Our formula milks’, www.hipp.co.uk/products/our-baby- milks

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57 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1999), ‘Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: healthier mothers and babies’, www.cdc.gov/ mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4838a2.htm

58 Kassebaum, N.J., Bertozzi-Villa, A, Coggeshall, M.S., Shackelford, K.A., Steiner, C., Heuton, K.R., et al. (2013), ‘Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study’, The Lancet, Vol.384, Issue 9947, pp.980–1004, www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2814%2960696-6/abstract

59 Health and Social Care Information Centre (2015), NHS maternity statistics – England, 2013-14, www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB16725

60 World Health Organization news release (2015), Casearean sections should only be performed when medically necessary, www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2015/caesarean-sections/en/

61 World Health Organization Global Health Observatory data repository, ‘Millennium Development Goal 5: Maternal and reproductive health. Women: data by country’, apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.REPWOMEN39?lang=en

62 The Associated Press (2015), ‘New rules to curb “epidemic” of caesarean births in Brazil (update)’, MedicalXpress, 7 January, medicalxpress.com/news/2015-01-curb-epidemic-cesarean-births-brazil.html

63 Holmgren G, SjoЁholm L, Stark M. The Misgav Ladach method for cesarean section: method description. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999 Aug;78(7):615-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10422908

64 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2011), NICE guidelines [CG132]: Caesarean section, www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg132/chapter/ guidance

65 Barber, E.L., Lundsberg, L., Belanger, K., Pettker, C.M., Funai, E.F., and Illuzzi, J.L. (2011), ‘Contributing indications to the rising cesarean delivery rate’, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 118(1), pp.29–38, www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751192

66 MedicineNet.com (2015), ‘Probiotics: what are prebiotics and synbiotics?’, 10 September, www.medicinenet.com/probiotics/page3.htm

67 Azad, M.B., Becker, A.B., Guttman, D.S., Field, C.J., Chari, R.S., Sears, M.R., Becker, A.B., Scott, J.A., Kozyrskyj, A.L., and the CHILD Study investigators (2013), ‘Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months’, Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 185, pp.385–94

68 Group B Strep Support, ‘Information about group B strep for pregnant women’, gbss.org.uk/who-we-are/about-gbs/what-is-gbs/for-pregnant-women

69 BabyCentre Medical Advisory Board (2012), ‘Group B streptococcus in pregnancy’, BabyCentre, www.babycentre.co.uk/a1647/group-b-streptococcus-in-pregnancy

70 Dekker R., ‘Group B strep in pregnancy: evidence for antibiotics and alternatives’, Evidence Based Birth evidencebasedbirth.com/groupbstrep

71 Azad, M.B., Konya, T., Persaud, R.R., Guttman, D.S., Chari, R.S., Field, C.J., Sears, M.R., Mandhane, P.J., Turvey, S.E., Subbarao, P., Becker, A.B., Scott, J.A., Kozyrskyj, A.L. and the CHILD Study investigators (2015), ‘Impact of maternal intrapartum antibiotics, method of birth and breastfeeding on gut microbiota during the first year of life: a prospective cohort study’, BJOG 28 Sep [Epub ahead of print], www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26412384

72 Hecht, D.W., ‘Bacteroides species’, Antimicrobe database, www.antimicrobe.org/b85.asp

73 Fraser, S.L., and Brusch, J.L. (2016), ‘Enterococcal infections’, Medscape, 17 March, emedicine.medscape.com/article/216993-overview

74 Azad, V.B., Konya, T., Guttman, D.S., Field, C.J., Sears, M.R., Hayglass, K.T., Mandhane, P.J., Turvey, S.E., Subbarao, P., Becker, A.B., Scott, J.A., Kozyrskyj, A.L. and the CHILD Study investigators (2015), ‘Infant gut microbiota and food sensitization: associations in the first year of life’, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, Vol.45, pp.632–43, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25599982

75 Smith, J., Plaat, F., and Fisk, N.M. (2008), ‘The natural Caesarean: a woman-centred technique’, BJOG. Vol. 115(8), pp.1037–42, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2613254

76 Callaway, E. (2016), ‘Scientists swab C-section babies with mothers’ microbes’, Nature News, 1 February www.nature.com/news/scientists- swab-c-section-babies-with-mothers-microbes-1.19275

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77 Nancy, P., Tagliani, E., Chin-Siean, T., Asp, P., Levy, D.E. and Erlebacher, A., (2012), ‘Chemokine gene silencing in decidual stromal cells limits T cell access to the maternal-fetal interface’, Science, Vol. 336(6086), pp.1317–21. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3727649

78 Yong, E (2013). ‘Newborn immune systems suppressed’, The Scientist, 6 November, www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/38187/title/Newborn-Immune-Systems-Suppressed/

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79 We made a documentary film called Freedom For Birth in 2012 (freedomforbirth.com) looking at the implications of a ruling by the European Court of Human Rights that every mother has the human right to decide the circumstances of her birth. Case of Ternovszky v. Hungary. ECHR, 14 December 2010, application no.67545/09

80 Science Museum, ‘What did the Human Genome Project find? How many genes do you have?’ www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/whoami/findoutmore/yourgenes/whatwasthehumangenomeproject/whatdidthehumangenomeprojectfind

81 Feil, R., and Fraga, M.F. (2012), Epigenetics and the environment: emerging patterns and implications’, Nature Reviews Genetics Vol.13, pp.97–109, www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v13/n2/full/nrg3142.html

82 Thomson, H. (2014), ‘“Epigenetic” gene tweaks seem to trigger cancer’, New Scientist Daily News, 25 July, www.newscientist.com/article/dn25959-epigenetic-gene-tweaks-seem-to-trigger-cancer

83 McKie, R. (2013), ‘Why do identical twins end up having such different lives?’, The Observer, 2 June, www.theguardian.com/science/2013/jun/02/twins-identical-genes-different-health-study

84 Duhl, D., Vrieling, H., Miller, K.A., Wolff, G.L., and Barsh, G.S. (1994), ‘Neomorphic agouti mutations in obese yellow mice’, Nature Genetics Vol. 8(1), pp59–65, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7987393

85 Adams, J. (2008), ‘Obesity, epigenetics, and gene regulation’, Nature Education, Vol. 1(1), p.128 www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/obesity-epigenetics-and-gene-regulation-927

86 The EPIIC International Research Group was founded by Professors Soo Downe from the University of Central Lancashire, Holly Powell-Kennedy from Yale University and Professor Hannah Dahlen from Western Sydney University

87 Dahlen, H.G., Kennedy, H.P., Anderson, C.M., Bell, A.F., Clark, A., Fourer, M., et al. (2013), Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 80(5), pp.656–62, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23414680

88 Almgren, M., Schlinzig T, Gomez-Cabrero, D., Gunnar, A., Sundin, M., Johansson, S., et al. (2014),‘Cesarean delivery and hematopoietic stem cell epigenetics in the newborn infant: implications for future health?’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 211(5), pp.502. e1–502.e8, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24996659

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89 Hillman, N., Kallapur, S. G., and Jobe, A. (2012). ‘Physiology of transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life’, Clinics in Perinatology, Vol. 39(4), pp.769–83, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3504352

90 Blustein J., Liu, J. (2015), ‘Time to consider the risks of caesarean delivery for long term child health’, BMJ, Vol. 350: h2410. www.bmj. com/content/350/bmj.h2410. For a lay summary see: Kraft, A. (2015), ‘C-section births linked to long-term child health problems’, CBS News, 11 June, www.cbsnews.com/news/c-section-cesarean-births-child-health-problems-asthma-obesity-diabetes

91 Black, M., Bhattacharya, S., Philip, S., Norman, J.E., and McLernon, D.J. (2015), ‘Planned cesarean delivery at term and adverse outcomes in childhood health’, Journal of the American Medical Association 2015;314(21):2271–79. For a layman’s summary see: Rabin, R. (2015), ‘C-sections are best with a little labor, a study says’, The New York Times, 14 December, well.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/12/14/c-sections-are-best-with-a-little-labor-a-study-says/

92 Sevelsted, A., Stokholm, J., Bo⁄nnelykke, K., and Bisgaard, H. (2014), ‘Cesarean section and chronic immune disorders pediatrics’, Pediatrics, Vol. 135(1), pp.e92–8 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25452656. For a layman’s summary see: Ringgaard, A. (2014), ‘Giant study links C-sections with chronic disorders’, ScienceNordic, 9 December, sciencenordic.com/giant-study-links-c-sections-chronic-disorders

93 Huang, L., Chen, Q., Zhao, Y., Wang, W., Fang, F., and Bao, Y (2015). ‘Is elective caesarean section associated with a higher risk of asthma? A meta-analyses’, Journal of Asthma, Vol. 52(1), pp.16–25, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25162303

94 Cardwell, C.R., Stene, L.C., Joner, G., Cinek, O., Svensson, J., Goldacre, M.J., Parslow, R.C. et al (2008), ‘Caesarean section is associated with an increased risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of observational studies’, Diabetologia, Vol. 51(5), pp726–35. link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00125-008-0941-z

95 Darmasseelane, K., Hyde, M.J., Santhakumaran, S., Gale, C., and Modi, N. (2014) ‘Mode of Delivery and Offspring Body Mass Index, Overweight and Obesity in Adult Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis’, PLoS ONE 9(2): e87896. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087896; journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0087896

96 Research in Germany published in 2010 found 28 % of coeliac children were born by C-section compared with a maximum C-section rate of 19 % in all the other groups. Decker, E., Engelmann, G., Findeisen, A., Gerner, P., Laass, M., Ney, D., et al. (2010), ‘Cesarean delivery is associated with celiac disease but not inflammatory bowel disease in children’, Pediatrics, Vol, 125(6), pp.e1433–40, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20478942

97 Asthma UK, ‘Asthma and other conditions’, www.asthma.org.uk/advice/manage-your-asthma/other-conditions

98 Santillan, A.A, Camargo, C.A. Jr, Colditz, G.A. (2003), ‘A meta-analysis of asthma and risk of lung cancer (United States)’, Cancer Causes Control Vol. 14(4), pp.327–34, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12846363

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99 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ‘CDC global noncommunicable diseases (NCDs)’, www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/ healthprotection/ncd

100 World Health Organization (2015), ‘Fact sheet: noncommunicable diseases’, www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs355/en

101 United Nations. 2011 high level meeting on prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, www.un.org/en/ga/ncdmeeting2011

102 World Economic Forum (2011), ‘The global economic burden of non- communicable diseases’, 18 September, www.weforum.org/reports/global- economic-burden-non-communicable-diseases

103 Reuters article www.reuters.com/article/us-disease-chronic-costs- idUSTRE78H2IY20110918 based on World Economic Forum (2011), ‘The global economic burden of non-communicable diseases’, 18 September, www.weforum.org/reports/global-economic-burden-non-communicable-diseases

104 World Health Organization (2005), ‘World Health Assembly adopts new international health regulations: new rules govern national and international response to disease outbreaks’ (press release), 23 May, www. who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2005/pr_wha03/en

105 Davies, S.E. (2013), ‘National security and pandemics’ UN Chronicle Vol. L(2), August, unchronicle.un.org/article/national-security-and- pandemics/

106 Shabecoff, P. (1988), Global warming has begun, expert tells senate, The New York Times, 24 June, www.nytimes.com/1988/06/24/us/global-warming-has-begun-expert-tells-senate.html

107 Goldberg, S. (2015), ‘US Senate refuses to accept humanity’s role in global climate change, again’, The Guardian, 22 January, www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jan/22/us-senate-man-climate-change-global-warming-hoax